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‘Residual Echo’ of Ancient Humans in Scans May Hold Clues to Mental Disorders

Summary: A new study in Scientific Reports finds evidence from MRI scans suggests Neanderthal derived genetic variations affect how the brains of modern humans work. Findings may shed light on specific deficits seen in ASD and schizophrenia, researchers believe.

Source: NIH/NIMH.

Researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) have produced the first direct evidence that parts of our brains implicated in mental disorders may be shaped by a “residual echo” from our ancient past. The more a person’s genome carries genetic vestiges of Neanderthals, the more certain parts of his or her brain and skull resemble those of humans’ evolutionary cousins that went extinct 40,000 years ago, says NIMH’s Karen Berman, M.D. NIMH is part of the National Institutes of Health.

In particular, the parts of our brains that enable us to use tools and visualize and locate objects owe some of their lineage to Neanderthal-derived gene variants that are part of our genomes and affect the shape of those structures — to the extent that an individual harbors the ancient variants. But this may involve trade-offs with our social brain. The evidence from MRI scans suggests that such Neanderthal-derived genetic variation may affect the way our brains work today — and may hold clues to understanding deficits seen in schizophrenia and autism-related disorders, say the researchers.

Dr. Berman, Michael Gregory, M.D., of the NIMH Section on Integrative Neuroimaging, and colleagues, report on their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study published online, July 24, 2017 in the journal Scientific Reports.

During their primordial migration out of Africa, ancestors of present-day humans are thought to have interbred with Neanderthals, whose brain characteristics can be inferred from their fossilized skulls. For example, these indicate that Neanderthals had more prominent visual systems than modern humans.

“It’s been proposed that Neanderthals depended on visual-spatial abilities and toolmaking, for survival, more so than on the social affiliation and group activities that typify the success of modern humans — and that Neanderthal brains evolved to preferentially support these visuospatial functions,” Berman explained. “Now we have direct neuroimaging evidence that such trade-offs may still be operative in our brains.”

Image shows skull imaging.

MRI data shows areas of the skull preferentially affected by the amount of Neanderthal-derived DNA. NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Michael Gregory, M.D., NIMH Section on Integrative Neuroimaging.

Might some of us, more than others, harbor Neanderthal-derived gene variants that may bias our brains toward trading sociability for visuospatial prowess — or vice versa? The new study adds support to this possibility by showing how these gene variants influence the structure of brain regions underlying those abilities.

To test this possibility, Gregory and Berman measured the impact of Neanderthal variants on MRI measures of brain structure in a sample of 221 participants of European ancestry, drawn from the NIMH Genetic Study of Schizophrenia.

brain scans

MRI data show areas of the brain’s visual system in which Neanderthal gene variants influenced cortex folding (red) and gray matter volume (yellow). Credit: Michael Gregory, M.D., NIMH Section on Integrative Neuroimaging.

The new MRI evidence points to a a gene variant shared by modern-day humans and Neanderthals that is likely involved in development of the brain’s visual system. Similarly, Neanderthal variants impacting development of a particular suspect brain area may help to inform cognitive disability seen in certain brain disorders, say the researchers.

For example, in 2012, Berman and colleagues reported on how genetic variation shapes the structure and function of a brain area called the Insula in the autism-related disorder Williams Syndrome. People with this rare genetic disorder are overly sociable and visuo-spatially impaired – conspicuously opposite to the hypothesized Neanderthal propensities and more typical cases on the autism spectrum. Mice in which a gene affected by Williams syndrome is experimentally deleted show increased separation anxiety. And just last week, researchers showed that the same genetic variability also appears to explain why dogs are friendlier than wolves.

About this neuroscience research article

Funding: UNIH/National Institute of Mental Health funded the study.

Source: Jules Asher – NIH/NIMH
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com images are credited to Michael Gregory, M.D., NIMH Section on Integrative Neuroimaging.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Neanderthal-Derived Genetic Variation Shapes Modern Human Cranium and Brain” by Michael D. Gregory, J. Shane Kippenhan, Daniel P. Eisenberg, Philip D. Kohn, Dwight Dickinson, Venkata S. Mattay, Qiang Chen, Daniel R. Weinberger, Ziad S. Saad & Karen F. Berman in Scientific Reports. Published online July 24 2017 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06587-0

Cite This NeuroscienceNews.com Article
NIH/NIMH “‘Residual Echo’ of Ancient Humans in Scans May Hold Clues to Mental Disorders.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 26 July 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/evolution-mental-health-7185/>.
NIH/NIMH (2017, July 26). ‘Residual Echo’ of Ancient Humans in Scans May Hold Clues to Mental Disorders. NeuroscienceNew. Retrieved July 26, 2017 from http://neurosciencenews.com/evolution-mental-health-7185/
NIH/NIMH “‘Residual Echo’ of Ancient Humans in Scans May Hold Clues to Mental Disorders.” http://neurosciencenews.com/evolution-mental-health-7185/ (accessed July 26, 2017).

Abstract

Neanderthal-Derived Genetic Variation Shapes Modern Human Cranium and Brain

Before their disappearance from the fossil record approximately 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals, the ancient hominin lineage most closely related to modern humans, interbred with ancestors of present-day humans. The legacy of this gene flow persists through Neanderthal-derived variants that survive in modern human DNA; however, the neural implications of this inheritance are uncertain. Here, using MRI in a large cohort of healthy individuals of European-descent, we show that the amount of Neanderthal-originating polymorphism carried in living humans is related to cranial and brain morphology. First, as a validation of our approach, we demonstrate that a greater load of Neanderthal-derived genetic variants (higher “NeanderScore”) is associated with skull shapes resembling those of known Neanderthal cranial remains, particularly in occipital and parietal bones. Next, we demonstrate convergent NeanderScore-related findings in the brain (measured by gray- and white-matter volume, sulcal depth, and gyrification index) that localize to the visual cortex and intraparietal sulcus. This work provides insights into ancestral human neurobiology and suggests that Neanderthal-derived genetic variation is neurologically functional in the contemporary population.

“Neanderthal-Derived Genetic Variation Shapes Modern Human Cranium and Brain” by Michael D. Gregory, J. Shane Kippenhan, Daniel P. Eisenberg, Philip D. Kohn, Dwight Dickinson, Venkata S. Mattay, Qiang Chen, Daniel R. Weinberger, Ziad S. Saad & Karen F. Berman in Scientific Reports. Published online July 24 2017 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06587-0

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