The fossil of a 525-million-year-old tiny sea creature with a preserved nervous system may solve a century-long debate about how the brains of arthropods evolved.
Octopuses have a massively expanded repertoire of miRNA in their neural tissue, reflecting a similar development to that which occurred in vertebrates. Findings suggest miRNA plays a significant role in the development of complex brains.
A new map of the octopus visual system classifies different types of neurons in a part of the brain dedicated to vision, shedding new light on the evolution of the brain and visual systems in a more broad sense.
Traits with the strongest Neanderthal DNA contribution were sleep patterns, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption.
Two mouse genes that were left behind by viral infections millions of years ago have evolved to help defend the brain against new infections.
Researchers say laughter may have been preserved by natural selection to assist with human survival.
Not only did microbes diversify within early modern human hosts as they traveled and settled in different geographical locations, they also followed human evolution by limiting themselves to the gut.
Study reveals greater neuron production in the modern human frontal lobe during development compared to the Neanderthal brain. Researchers say this is due to a change in a single amino acid in the TKTL1 protein.