HIV infection prevents myelin-associated oligodendrocytes from maturing, this, in turn, hampers white matter production in the brain.
Cells that drive myelin repair become less efficient due to aging. Myelin loss results in cognitive decline and is central to a number of neurodegenerative diseases.
Enteric neurons appear to play a key role in the development of Parkinson's disease. The findings support the hypothesis and previous studies that the neurodegenerative disease may start in the gut before spreading to the brain. Researchers also found oligodendrocytes were affected during the early stages of Parkinson's, even before the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
A global knockout of the thrombin receptor PAR1 accelerates myelin development. The findings could help with the development of treatments for diseases associated with demyelination, like multiple sclerosis.
CYFIP1 plays a key role in the damaging effects of 15q11.2 deletion. When CYFIP1 is missing, myelin abnormalities occur. The findings shed light on how psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, may develop.
Senolytic drugs administered to mice reduced senescent cells around amyloid plaques by more than 90% and decreased neuroinflammation by 50%. Mice treated with the drug combination also showed improvements in spatial memory, compared to other Alzheimer's model mice who received no treatment. The findings could have positive implications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in people with the condition.
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Axon myelination is significantly disrupted in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Researchers also found brain cells of men and women vary significantly in how their genes respond to the neurodegenerative disease.