BIN1, a gene associated with Alzheimer's disease, regulates hippocampal neural activity. Neurons with higher levels of BIN1 fired more often and were more prone to hyperexcitability. BIN1 is the first gene to be linked to hyperexcitability as a driving factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease.
Neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex respond more to loss than to gain. Avoidance of risk-taking is affected by an area of the hippocampus that is associated with memory and anxiety. The findings suggest a close relationship between memory processing and decision making when risk is present, especially in stressful situations. The fresh insights might help guide new psychiatric therapies for disorders marked by excessive avoidance, such as anxiety, and depression, and also mania and addiction, where excessive risk-taking is a common feature.
Alterations in the excitation and inhibition balance is regulated in the developing brain by astrocytes via the ephrin-B1 protein. The loss of astrocytic ephrin-B1 alters the E/I balance by reducing inhibition, resulting in hyperactivity of neural circuits. The hyperactivity results in reduced sociability in mice.
The NTRK2 gene has been implicated in resilience to developing PTSD following psychologically traumatic events. Previous studies outlined the role NTRK2 plays in memory formation. Those with increased regulation of the gene developed fewer traumatic memories following traumatic experiences.
Using a third-person, or observer, perspective to recall memories activates different areas of the brain than using a first-person perspective for memory recall. Adopting an observer-perspective for memory recall leads to increased interaction between the anterior hippocampus and posterior medial network.
Aging may alter neural processes for remembering continuous real-world experiences and segmenting memories.
Cannabidiol (CBD) increases cerebral blood flow to areas of the brain associated with memory processing, specifically the hippocampus. The findings identify a potential mechanism for the use of CBD to treat disorders associated with altered memory processing, including Alzheimer's disease, PTSD, and schizophrenia.
Obesity and higher body mass are linked to decreased cerebral blood flow. Lower cerebral blood flow is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and a range of psychiatric disorders.
Depression and anxiety have a profound effect on brain areas associated with memory and emotional processing. In people with depression and anxiety, researchers noted shrinkage to the hippocampus. By contrast, the amygdala increased in size.
Compared to typically developing children, those with disruptive behavioral disorders, characterized by antisocial behaviors and aggression, had less gray matter in the amygdala and hippocampus.