In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, active neurons still encode memory, and a group of active neurons encodes novel environmental information. The signal of the novelty containing neurons causes a superimposition disturbing the signal of memory encoding neurons.
GABAergic interneuron excitation is essential for network activity in the hippocampus of the fetal brain.
Neurons created as a result of adult neurogenesis mature for longer and grow larger than those created during infancy. Findings suggest adult-born neurons may have a more powerful function than those created during infancy and may play a critical role in neuroplasticity.
Dropping the level of the IL-33 immune molecule increased the number of synapses in the brain. In older mice, ramping up IL-33 helped push the number of new synapses toward a more youthful state.
Hippocampal neurons that respond to fearful stimuli relay that information to the amygdala. These neurons synchronize when memories of the stimuli are later recalled. The synchrony is critical to establish fear memories and the greater the synchrony, the stronger the memory becomes.
Eating a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids appears to have a positive effect on brain health in older women who live in areas with high levels of air pollution. Women with lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood had more brain shrinkage, specifically in the hippocampus than women with higher levels of omega-3.
Oxytocin, the so-called "love hormone," could help to treat cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Researchers demonstrated oxytocin reversed the effects of amyloid-beta on hippocampal LTP in mice. The findings suggest oxytocin could be used as a therapeutic for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.
Compared to typically developing children, those with disruptive behavioral disorders, characterized by antisocial behaviors and aggression, had less gray matter in the amygdala and hippocampus.
Depression and anxiety have a profound effect on brain areas associated with memory and emotional processing. In people with depression and anxiety, researchers noted shrinkage to the hippocampus. By contrast, the amygdala increased in size.
Obesity and higher body mass are linked to decreased cerebral blood flow. Lower cerebral blood flow is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and a range of psychiatric disorders.