Parkinson's patients have reduced acylated-ghrelin to unacylated-ghrelin ratios in their blood. Lower levels of unacylated-ghrelin have been associated with a reduced ability to generate new neurons and memory impairments.
Novel experiences dampen previous memory representations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, facilitating flexible strategy encoding in mice.
GABAergic interneuron excitation is essential for network activity in the hippocampus of the fetal brain.
Mouse study reveals how neurons reorganize following experiencing novel stimuli. The study reports a possible mechanism for memory consolidation and recall, shedding new light on the biological underpinnings for long-term memory.
Neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex respond more to loss than to gain. Avoidance of risk-taking is affected by an area of the hippocampus that is associated with memory and anxiety. The findings suggest a close relationship between memory processing and decision making when risk is present, especially in stressful situations. The fresh insights might help guide new psychiatric therapies for disorders marked by excessive avoidance, such as anxiety, and depression, and also mania and addiction, where excessive risk-taking is a common feature.
A specialized area of the mouse brain called the SuM specializes in detecting novel experiences. Within this brain area, responses to social novelty, or experiences related to unknown individuals, were segregated from those related to unfamiliar places, before being sent to areas of the brain associated with memory.
Chronic increases of the cytokine IL-17a circulating in the blood of mice reduced microglia activity in one region of the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for memory and learning.
A newly developed biodegradable microcapsule that delivers nerve growth factor guides the development of hippocampal neurons in in-vitro experiments.
Study reaffirms findings that the gut microbiome may play a significant role in cognitive decline. Researchers found, in mice, a ketogenic diet, hypoxia, and the Bilophila wadsworthia bacteria impaired the hippocampus, leading to signs of cognitive decline.