Outside Factors May Help Children Develop Internal Control

Summary: A new theory proposes executive function, or the ability to control your behavior, might not exist just within the mind. External influences may dictate the development of internal control.

Source: Washington State University

The ability to control your own behavior, known as executive function, might not exist all in your head. A new theory proposes that it develops with many influences from outside the mind.

The theory, detailed in Perspectives on Psychological Science, draws on dynamic systems theory which originated in mathematics and physics and has been used to describe complex organizing phenomena like cloud formation and flying patterns of birds.

Now, a research team led by Washington State University human development assistant professor Sammy Perone is applying it to executive function, which has been shown to play a role in everything from children’s readiness for school to their social relationships. Its development is also tied to long-term outcomes for adulthood.

“We propose that executive function is really about using cues from the environment to guide your behavior,” said Perone. “As humans we use our experience and norms to decide what’s the appropriate path to take, so to encourage executive function development, we want to help children build those connections between cues and appropriate behaviors.”

In a classroom, these cues might include things such as decorations on the wall, verbal instructions or the way tables are set up. Eliminating environmental distractions may also help children control their behavior like having sharpened pencils on hand or resolving a tottering desk chair. In addition, physical things normally thought of as peripheral, like whether a child has adequate sleep or enough to eat, also influence executive function, Perone said.

Previously, the dominant view held that executive function was three distinct neurocognitive processes: working memory, inhibitory control, which is the ability to stop yourself from doing something, and cognitive flexibility, which allows you to transition from one activity to the next. This perspective has been called into question, Perone said.

This shows school books and building blocks on a desk
In a classroom, these cues might include things such as decorations on the wall, verbal instructions or the way tables are set up. Image credited to Washington State University

“If these different cognitive processes are what makes up executive function, you would think you could just train those processes, and then, you can then use them everywhere,” he said. “Turns out, that doesn’t work, and that’s been shown over and over again. People think and behave in an environment, so we can’t just train executive function by say doing computer exercises on working memory.”

The new theory builds on the work of cognitive scientist Sabine Doebel who called for a redefinition of executive function in 2020 as the “development of skills in using control in the service of behavior.” Perone and his co-authors from University of Kansas and University of Tennessee expand on that new definition by bringing in dynamics systems theory to help explain how humans use a variety of external factors to organize their behavior.

“We need to think more about executive function as it operates—as goal-directed behavior in the real world,” Perone said. “When you take that perspective, all of the sudden, it becomes much more practical to childcare providers and parents, because that’s where kids are thinking and behaving and developing.”

About this executive function research news

Source: Washington State University
Contact: Sara Zaske – Washington State University
Image: The image is credited to Washington State University

Original Research: Closed access.
A Dynamical Reconceptualization of Executive-Function Development” by Sammy Perone et al. Perspectives on Psychological Science


A Dynamical Reconceptualization of Executive-Function Development

Executive function plays a foundational role in everyday behaviors across the life span. The theoretical understanding of executive-function development, however, is still a work in progress.

Doebel proposed that executive-function development reflects skills using control in the service of behavior—using mental content such as knowledge and beliefs to guide behavior in a context-specific fashion. This liberating view contrasts with modular views of executive function.

This new view resembles some older dynamic-systems concepts that long ago proposed that behavior reflects the assembly of multiple pieces in context. We dig into this resemblance and evaluate what else dynamic-systems theory adds to the understanding of executive-function development.

We describe core dynamic-systems concepts and apply them to executive function—as conceptualized by Doebel—and through this lens explain the multilevel nature of goal-directed behavior and how a capacity to behave in a goal-directed fashion across contexts emerges over development.

We then describe a dynamic systems model of goal-directed behavior during childhood and, finally, address broader theoretical implications of dynamic-systems theory and propose new translational implications for fostering children’s capacity to behave in a goal-directed fashion across everyday contexts.

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