Following deep anesthesia, consciousness and cognitive processes unfold over time. The prefrontal cortex is the first brain area to recover, with areas associated with reaction time and attention taking longer to return to pre-anesthesia states.
Prefrontal cortex activity reveals those who have a more detached personality have similar activity when processing information relating to both social and non-social stimuli. By contrast, those who are more agreeable have significant differences in PFC activity when processing the different forms of information.
Soccer players who feel anxious at the thought of kicking a penalty kick and who miss the goal show more activity in the prefrontal cortex. Overthinking the shot, researchers say, could play a role in missing a goal.
Researchers have implicated alterations in the balance of two chloride ion channels in the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Inhibiting transporter activity with bumetanide reversed some of the cognitive symptoms in mouse models of the psychiatric disorder.
Propofol, the commonly used anesthetic, alters and controls the dynamics of the brain's rhythms. The findings can help doctors better monitor patients under anesthesia with the aid of EEG.
Peripheral and brain markers for fear differ in a hormone dependent manner between males and females.
Corporal punishment may detrimentally harm brain development, a new study reports. Previous studies have revealed links between spanking and psychological problems, including depression and anxiety. The new study found children who experienced spanking as a form of punishment demonstrated greater activation in areas of the prefrontal cortex in response to fearful stimuli.
While the effects of hallucinogens to treat mental illnesses are being researched, little is known about the neurobiology of those who dabble in psychedelics for recreational purposes. A new study reports "psychonauts" have distinct behaviors, including taking a scientific approach to documenting their experience with hallucinogens, compared to more recreational users.
Gene expression patterns in four regions of the prefrontal cortex are distinctly different in those who have been diagnosed with PTSD compared to those who have not. Major differences were seen in interneurons, which inhibit the immune system and microglia in the central nervous system. Findings shed light on why women are more likely to experience PTSD and compound a link between post-traumatic stress and a dampening of the immune system.
Focusing on gene changes as a result of epigenetic processes, such as aging, researchers were able to reverse elevated levels of harmful genes associated with memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease.
Anterior cingulate cortex neurons project connections to the superior colliculus. The superior colliculus carries out reflexive movements. The study finds the purpose of the ACC neurons connections to the SC is to over-rider the SC when executive control is essential.