Data collected from smartphones can accurately predict connectivity between brain regions associated with emotional processing. Analyzing cellphone data, such as social activity, screen time, and location, alongside fMRI brain scans, researchers found smartphone data activity mirrors brain activity associated with depression and anxiety.
Study provides new insight into how brain waves control the flow of information through the cortex.
Social isolation experienced during childhood has an impact on adult brain function and behavior. Following two weeks of social isolation immediately following weaning in male mice, researchers noticed a failure in activation of medial prefrontal cortex neurons projecting to the posterior paraventricular thalamus during social exposure in adulthood. Findings suggest medial prefrontal cortex neurons required for sociability are profoundly affected by social isolation at a young age.
Neuroimaging predicts whether a person with OCD will respond to stress-reduction therapy or exposure-based therapy best. Analyzing brain activity may help to provide tailored treatments to individuals suffering from OCD.
Animals slowly shift their likelihood of detecting stimulus changes over ten minutes. Researchers found the activity of neural populations from the V4 visual area and prefrontal cortex slowly drifted together with the behavioral fluctuations. The slow drift acts as an impulsivity signal.
Children who experience early life adversity experience faster biological aging than children with no history of exposure to abuse. Trauma was associated with biological aging in early puberty, cellular aging, and alterations in brain structure. The findings may explain why children who experienced adversity early in life often suffer poor health as they age.
Oral contraceptive use is associated with blunted stress response and brain activity differences during working memory tasks in women who started using birth control during puberty. Early adulthood exposure to oral contraceptives was linked to significant structural changes in brain areas associated with memory and emotional processing.
Analysis of over 2,000 brain scans revealed evidence of highly reproducible sex differences in the volume of different regions of the brain. On average, females had greater cortical volume in the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. Males had increased volume in the ventral temporal and occipital brain regions. Gene expression data suggest the potential role of sex chromosomes that contribute to the differences.
When hippocampal firing rates are high before exposure to a learning task, people are better able to successfully encode memory. Findings suggest the hippocampus may have a "ready to encode" mode that facilitates memory recall.
Following a one year program of aerobic exercise improves memory function and boosts blood flow to brain areas critical for cognition in older adults with risk factors for dementia.