An over-production of eIF4E impairs microglial cells, hampering their ability to effectively prune synapses and leading to autism-like behaviors in male mouse models of ASD.
Researchers identify genetic variations in the prefrontal cortex during different stages of development to assess how psychiatric conditions, such as autism and schizophrenia, may arise in individuals.
Study identifies AIM1 inflammasomes as crucial players in the development of a properly formed central nervous system by removing genetically compromised cells. The findings shed light on neurodevelopmental dysfunctions which occur and give rise to behavioral related disorders.
Those on the autism spectrum had atypically smaller pupil dilation compared to the control group during distracting conditions while taking a push-button test. The findings suggest those with ASD may have dysregulation in locus coeruleus activity. The dysregulation of the LC may explain the exaggerated responses to environmental stimuli and fixated behaviors many with ASD experience.
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in eleven surveillance sites is 1 in 54 among children aged eight. This is a 10% increase from 2014 when it was 1 in 59. Since 2000, prevalence rates of ASD have almost tripled, from 0.67% to 1.85%.
Astrocytes are not uniform, as previously believed, but take distinct molecular forms depending on their location in the cerebral cortex. Astrocytes also organize in layers in similar ways to neurons.
15-month-old infants with an older sibling on the autism spectrum, and who experience social difficulties, such as insecure-resistant parental attachment, are more than nine times more likely to be diagnosed with ASD.
Mutations of the RAB39b gene lead to macrocephaly and autism-like behaviors in mouse brain organoid models, and enlargements and impairments in human organoids.
The largest genetic map of mental health disorders to date reveals there are three groups of highly genetically related disorders among eight psychiatric disorders. A gene related to nervous system development is a risk factor for all eight disorders studied. The RBFOX1 gene is implicated in seven of the eight disorders. ADHD and depression share 44% of genetic risk factors common in the general population. 109 pleiotropic loci affect more than one disorder. These pleiotropic loci are within genes that show heightened expression in the brain through the lifespan, beginning during the second trimester of pregnancy.
Understanding how the brain decides what it should pay attention to is key to understanding how prediction plays a tole in autism.