Origin of Human Genus May Have Occurred By Chance

Summary: Study challenges conventional ideas about why our human ancestors became smarter and more sophisticated.

Source: George Washington University.

A GW researcher’s paper challenges the claim that the genus Homo originated in response to environmental changes.

An often cited claim that humans, who are smarter and more technologically advanced than their ancestors, originated in response to climate change is challenged in a new report by a Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology researcher at George Washington University.

Many scientists have argued that an influx, described as a “pulse,” of new animal species appear in the African fossil record between 2.8 and 2.5 million years ago, including our own genus Homo. Experts believe it takes a broad-scale event like global climate change to spark the origination of so many diverse new species. However, W. Andrew Barr, a visiting assistant professor of anthropology, published a report that says it’s possible the pulse of new species could have occurred by chance and might not be directly related to climate change.

It is generally accepted that when major environmental changes occur, some species will go extinct and others will originate, which can create a cluster or pulse of new species in the fossil record. However, there is not a set definition of what is considered a pulse, so experts have disagreed about which clusters constitute meaningful events and which can be explained as random fluctuations.

Dr. Barr used computer simulation to model what the fossil record might look like over time in the absence of any climate change and found clusters of species originations that were of similar magnitude to the clusters observed in the fossil record. This means random patterns are likely under-credited for their role in speciation fluctuation, he said.

Dr. Barr’s findings mean scientists may need to rethink widely-accepted ideas about why human ancestors became smarter and more sophisticated.

“The idea that our genus originated more than 2.5 million years ago as part of a turnover pulse in direct response to climate change has a deep history in paleonthropology,” Dr. Barr said. “My study shows that the magnitude of that pulse could be caused by random fluctuations in speciation rates. One implication is that we may need to broaden our search for why our genus arose at that time and place.”

He compared the pattern to flipping a coin. If you flip a coin 100 times, you would expect to record 50 heads and 50 tails. However, if you are only looking at 10 coin flips, you could see a greater imbalance, instead recording seven heads and only three tails. This would even out over time, but in the short-run, you could see clusters of these independent coin flips, he said.

Image shows the skull of Homo erectus.
Dr. Barr’s findings mean scientists may need to rethink widely-accepted ideas about why human ancestors became smarter and more sophisticated.NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.

Similarly, fluctuations in turnover in Dr. Barr’s model are pronounced, but are caused purely by random processes.

“The idea the the origin of Homo is part of a climate-caused turnover pulse doesn’t really bear out when you carefully look at the evidence and compare it against other possible explanations,” Dr. Barr said.

This research challenges scientists to be careful about the stories they tell about the history of human adaption, Dr. Barr said. Traits that make humans different from our ancestors, like larger brains and greater technological sophistication, could have arisen for a variety of reasons, he said.

“We can sit in the present and tell stories of the past that make sense of our modern day adaptations,” he said. “But these could have evolved for reasons we don’t know.”

About this neuroscience research article

Source: Brett Zongker – George Washington University
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Signal or noise? A null model method for evaluating the significance of turnover pulses” by W. Andrew Barr in Paleobiology. Published online July 31 2017 doi:10.1017/pab.2017.21

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[cbtabs][cbtab title=”MLA”]George Washington University “Origin of Human Genus May Have Occurred By Chance.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 4 August 2017.
<https://neurosciencenews.com/environment-evolution-7240/>.[/cbtab][cbtab title=”APA”]George Washington University (2017, August 4). Origin of Human Genus May Have Occurred By Chance. NeuroscienceNew. Retrieved August 4, 2017 from https://neurosciencenews.com/environment-evolution-7240/[/cbtab][cbtab title=”Chicago”]George Washington University “Origin of Human Genus May Have Occurred By Chance.” https://neurosciencenews.com/environment-evolution-7240/ (accessed August 4, 2017).[/cbtab][/cbtabs]


Signal or noise? A null model method for evaluating the significance of turnover pulses

Patterns of turnover in the mammalian fossil record have been interpreted as reflecting “pulses” of originations and extinctions hypothesized to be driven by climate change. However, criteria for determining what constitutes a meaningful pulse have been idiosyncratic, and investigations of turnover patterns in mammals have yielded mixed results.

This study presents simple simulations of fossil records in which origination and extinction probabilities for each lineage are held constant. Nonetheless, the total number of turnover events per time bin varies stochastically, producing statistical “noise.” Various simulation and analytical assumptions are examined to determine their impact on the type I error rate (i.e., how often “pulses” are detected in a purely stochastic process).

Results suggest that simple analytical parameters (length of time bins and turnover-pulse criterion) have predictable and straightforward effects on false-positive rates. Furthermore, “pulses” of turnover of a magnitude similar to that observed in the terrestrial mammalian fossil record may be quite common under realistic analytical conditions.

The null turnover model offers a practical way to evaluate the significance of observed turnover events in future empirical studies of the fossil record. In evaluating the significance of a “pulse” of fossil origination or extinction events, analytical parameters can be explored using this null model to determine the approximate type I error rate for a set of parameters. Because false-positive rates are shown to be quite high, functional trait-based approaches may offer more reliable indicators of the impact of climate change on turnover dynamics.

“Signal or noise? A null model method for evaluating the significance of turnover pulses” by W. Andrew Barr in Paleobiology. Published online July 31 2017 doi:10.1017/pab.2017.21

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  1. These “pulses” in speciations can reasonably be imagined to occur for a significant number of triggers, certainly not only climate change. Our theoretical explanation, unsurprisingly, was likely over-simplified since the reason(s) for evolutionary changes were first surmised and attempts to correlate them to events occurred; because we lacked broad enough data and the very concept of evolutionary change has remained novel because of social pushback against the concept.

    There are many incomplete studies to be performed which may yield insights into this subject; and from a future vantage our understanding of the triggers and scope of evolutionary changes may well be considered to currently have been in its infancy.

    The key, or a major key, to driving evolutionary specification seems not to merely be changes in climate or competition from unrelated species; but instead whatever events may have resulted in isolation of relatively smaller breeding groups of the members of a species. This would cause interbreeding of individuals with a closer family relationship than might otherwise be the norm, and as we know will encourage development of mutations and recessive genetic traits. Some of these traits and mutations will prove to be survival advantages for any number of reasons, with previously dominant genetic traits removed from the breeding group through chance or survival advantages.

    As these genetic changes rise to the top of a breeding population the group’s overall genetic makeup will change so that in a much shorter than otherwise predicted time speciation has occurred. Eventually the rapidly evolving groups may either voluntarily or due to eventual genetic incompatibility earn a status that science will define to be a new species.

    Climate change is but one factor which might trigger evolutionary pulses. Others might well be continental drift isolating populations with physical barriers, elimination geographically of favored food sources, major volcanic actions, sea rises, and things we have as yet not connected to the process.

    One certainty is that there remains much data to be collected and a good deal of unbiased analysis to be performed before the correlations are adequately established to flesh out the subject better than science has doe to date.

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