Daily coffee does not affect cancer risk

Summary: Researchers report there is no real relationship between how many cups of coffee you drink per day and an increased risk of developing any particular cancer. They also ruled out a link between coffee intake and dying from the disease.

Source: QIMR Berghofer

Drinking coffee does not change a person’s risk of being diagnosed with or dying from cancer, a new QIMR Berghofer study has found.

The research findings have been published in the International Journal of Epidemiology.

Senior author and head of QIMR Berghofer’s Statistical Genetics Group, Associate Professor Stuart MacGregor, said the large Mendelian randomization study looked at data from more than 300,000 people and showed drinking coffee every day neither reduced nor increased a person’s risk of developing any cancer.

“We know that coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and there continue to be mixed messages about the role it plays in disease,” Associate Professor MacGregor said.

“We also know that a preference for coffee is heritable.”

“Our two-pronged research looked at whether cancer rates differed among people with different levels of self-reported coffee consumption, and whether the same trend was seen when we replaced self-reported consumption with a genetic predisposition towards coffee consumption.

“We found there was no real relationship between how many cups of coffee a person had a day and if they developed any particular cancers.

“The study also ruled out a link between coffee intake and dying from the disease.”

Coffee contains a complex mixture of bioactive ingredients, including substances such as caffeine and kahweol, which have been shown to display anti-tumour effects in animal studies.

Its potential anti-cancer effect on humans has not been established however, with studies to date producing conflicting findings for overall cancer risk and for individual cancers such as breast and prostate cancers.

The QIMR Berghofer study used cancer data drawn from the UK Biobank cohort for more than 46,000 people who had been diagnosed with most invasive cancer types, including about 7,000 people who died from the disease.

The genetic and preference information from the people with cancer was compared to data from more than 270,000 others who had never been diagnosed with cancer.

QIMR Berghofer lead researcher, Jue-Sheng Ong, said the study also looked at some common individual cancers such as breast, ovarian, lung and prostate cancers and found drinking coffee did not increase or decrease their incidence.

“There was some inconclusive evidence about colorectal cancer, where those who reported drinking a lot of coffee had a slightly lower risk of developing cancer, but conversely examination of data from those people with a higher genetic predisposition to drink more coffee seemed to indicate a greater risk of developing the disease,” Mr Ong said.

This shows a cup of coffee

Coffee contains a complex mixture of bioactive ingredients, including substances such as caffeine and kahweol, which have been shown to display anti-tumour effects in animal studies. The image is in the public domain.

“The disparity in those findings would suggest more research is needed to clarify if there is any relationship between colorectal cancer and coffee.”

Associate Professor MacGregor said the study had implications for public health messaging around the world.

“The health benefits of coffee have been argued for a long time, but this research shows simply changing your coffee consumption isn’t an effective way of protecting yourself from cancer,” he said.

Funding: The research was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council.

QUICK FACTS:

Australian Bureau of Statistics Health Survey figures show 46 percent of the Australian population consumed coffee (including coffee substitutes) in 2011-12.

According to Food Standards Australia New Zealand, there is no recognized health-based guidance value, such as an Acceptable Daily Intake, for caffeine.

In an August 2018 statement, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said current science indicated that consuming coffee posed no significant risk of cancer.

The UK Biobank cohort study is a population-based cohort study consisting of approximately half a million participants recruited across the UK from 2006 to 2010. The QIMR Berghofer analysis was restricted to 438 870 White British participants with adequate genetic and coffee consumption data.

About this neuroscience research article

Source:
QIMR Berghofer
Media Contacts:
Stuart MacGregor – QIMR Berghofer
Image Source:
The image is in the public domain.

Original Research: Closed access
“Association between coffee consumption and overall risk of being diagnosed with or dying from cancer among >300 000 UK Biobank participants in a large-scale Mendelian randomization study”. Jue-Sheng Ong, Matthew H Law, Jiyuan An, Xikun Han, Puya Gharahkhani, David C Whiteman, Rachel E Neale, Stuart MacGregor.
International Journal of Epidemiology.. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz144

Abstract

Association between coffee consumption and overall risk of being diagnosed with or dying from cancer among >300 000 UK Biobank participants in a large-scale Mendelian randomization study

Background
Previous observational studies have suggested that coffee intake may be associated with a reduction in cancer risk. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies can help clarify whether the observed associations are likely to be causal. Here we evaluated whether coffee intake is associated with: (i) overall risk of being diagnosed with/dying from any cancer; and (ii) risk of individual cancers.

Methods
We identified 46 155 cases (of which 6998 were fatal) and 270 342 controls of White British ancestry from the UK Biobank cohort (UKB), based on ICD10 diagnoses. Individuals with benign tumours were excluded. Coffee intake was self-reported and recorded based on cup/day consumption. We conducted both observational and summary data MR analyses.

Results
There was no observational association between coffee intake and overall cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) per one cup/day increase = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98, 1.00] or cancer death (OR = 1.01, 0.99, 1.03); the estimated OR from MR is 1.01 (0.94, 1.08) for overall cancer risk and 1.11 (0.95, 1.31) for cancer death. The relationship between coffee intake and individual cancer risks were consistent with a null effect, with most cancers showing little or no associations with coffee. Meta-analysis of our MR findings with publicly available summary data on various cancers do not support a strong causal relationship between coffee and risk of breast, ovarian, lung or prostate cancer, upon correction for multiple testing.

Conclusions
Taken together, coffee intake is not associated with overall risk of being diagnosed with or dying from cancer in UKB. For individual cancers, our findings were not statistically inconsistent with earlier observational studies, although for these we were unable to rule out a small effect on specific types of cancer.

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