Summary: Researchers pinpoint the brain circuitry involved in social reward and shed new light on oxytocin’s role in social behavior.
Oxytocin, a substance involved in nurturing, sexual and pair-bonding behaviors, has also been implicated in overall sociability. A new Stanford study in mice describes the brain circuitry that’s involved.
Why is it so much fun to hang out with our friends? Why are some people so sociable while others are loners or seemingly outright allergic to interactions with others?
A new study in mice by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine begins to provide an answer, pinpointing places and processes in the brain that promote socialization by providing pleasurable sensations when it occurs. The findings point to potential ways of helping people, such as those with autism or schizophrenia, who can be painfully averse to socializing.
The study, which was published Sept. 29 in Science, details the role of a substance called oxytocin in fostering and maintaining sociability. The senior author is Robert Malenka, MD, PhD, professor and associate chair of psychiatry and behavioral science. The lead author is former postdoctoral scholar Lin Hung, PhD.
“Our study reveals news about the brain circuitry behind social reward, the positive experience you often get when you run into an old friend or meet somebody you like,” said Malenka, who has focused much of his research on an assembly of interacting nerve tracts in the brain collectively known as the reward circuitry.
“The reward circuitry is crucial to our survival because it rewards us for doing things that have, during our evolutionary history, tended to enhance our survival, our reproduction and the survival of our resulting offspring,” said Malenka, who holds the Nancy Friend Pritzker Professorship in Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences. “It tells us what’s good by making us feel good. When you’re hungry, food tastes great. When you’re thirsty, water is refreshing. Sex is great pretty much most of the time. Hanging out with your friends confers a survival advantage, too, by decreasing your chances of getting eaten by predators, increasing your chances of finding a mate and maybe helping you learn where food and water are.”
Reward system conserved over evolution
Because the reward system is so critical, it’s been carefully conserved over evolution and in many respects operates just the same way in mice as it does in humans, making mice good experimental models for studying it.
Far and away the most important component of the brain’s reward circuitry, Malenka said, is a nerve tract that runs from a structure deep in the brain called the ventral tegmental area to a midbrain structure called the nucleus accumbens. The ventral tegmental area houses a cluster of nerve cells, or neurons, whose projections to the nucleus accumbens secrete a substance called dopamine, altering neuronal activity in this region. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens can produce a wave of pleasure, telling the brain that the event going on is helpful for survival. Dopamine release in this region, and subsequent changes in activity there and in downstream neurons, also primes the brain to remember the events and the behaviors leading up to the chemical’s release.
This tract, so famous for reinforcing survival-enhancing behaviors such as eating, drinking and mating, has been infamously implicated in our vulnerability to drug addiction — a survival-threatening outcome resulting from drugs’ ability to inappropriately stimulate dopamine secretion in the tract. But understanding exactly how and under what natural conditions the firing of its dopamine-secreting nerves gets tripped off is a work in progress.
Earlier work has specifically implicated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in social behavior. “So, we knew reward circuitry plays a role in social interactions,” Malenka said. “What we still didn’t know — but now we do — was: How does this increased dopamine release during social interaction come about?”
‘Love hormone’ pulls the strings
It turns out that another chemical — oxytocin — is pulling the strings.
Oxytocin is sometimes called the “love hormone” because it’s thought to be involved in falling in love, mother-child bonding and sexual arousal in females, as well as lifetime pair-bonding of sexual mates among some species. The chief source of oxytocin in the brain is the paraventricular nucleus, which resides in a deep-brain structure called the hypothalamus that serves as a manifold master regulator of body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, emotional reactions and more.
Research over the last 20 to 40 years has suggested that oxytocin plays a role in promoting not just sexual or nurturing behavior, but also sociability. A 2013 study co-authored by Malenka showed that oxytocin was essential to reinforcing friendly, social behavior in mice. But how that occurred was unclear, as the paraventricular nucleus sends oxytocin-squirting nerve tracts to many areas throughout the brain.
So Malenka and his colleagues designed experiments to nail down oxytocin’s role in social behavior. They confirmed that a tract running from the paraventricular nucleus to the ventral tegmental area carried oxytocin. They showed, for the first time, that activity in this tract’s oxytocin-secreting neurons jumped during mice’s social interactions and that this neuronal activity was required for their normal social behavior. Disrupting this activity inhibited sociability but didn’t impair the mice’s movement or their appetite for pleasurable drugs, such as cocaine.
The researchers demonstrated that oxytocin secreted in the ventral tegmental area by neurons originating in the paraventricular nucleus fosters sociability by binding to receptors on the dopamine-secreting neurons that compose the tract running from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, enhancing the firing of the reward-circuit tract.
The findings should help translational researchers develop medications for individuals with neurological disorders, such as autism, depression and schizophrenia, whose conditions compromise their ability to experience pleasure from connecting with other people, Malenka said.
But he also voiced a desire for more widespread applications of the research. “With so much hatred and anger in the world,” he said, “what could possibly be more important than understanding the mechanisms in the brain that make us want to be friendly with other people?”
Malenka is deputy director of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute and a member of Stanford Bio-X, an interdisciplinary biosciences institute.
Other Stanford co-authors of the paper are postdoctoral scholars Jai Polepalli, PhD, and Jessica Walsh, PhD; former postdoctoral scholar Gul Dolen, MD, PhD; visiting medical student Sophie Neuner, now back in Germany; instructor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences Kevin Beier, PhD; instructor of general psychiatry and psychology Matthew Wright, MD, PhD; Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, professor of bioengineering and of psychiatry and behavior sciences; and professor of biology Liqun Luo, PhD.
Funding: The study was funded by the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, the Harwell Foundation, the Kinship Foundation and the Klingenstein-Simons Foundation.
Stanford’s Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences also supported the work.
Source: Bruce Goldman – Stanford
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Gating of social reward by oxytocin in the ventral tegmental area” by Lin W. Hung, Sophie Neuner, Jai S. Polepalli, Kevin T. Beier, Matthew Wright, Jessica J. Walsh, Eastman M. Lewis, Liqun Luo, Karl Deisseroth, Gül Dölen, and Robert C. Malenka in Science. Published online September 29 2017 doi:10.11126/science.aan4994
Gating of social reward by oxytocin in the ventral tegmental area
The reward generated by social interactions is critical for promoting prosocial behaviors. Here we present evidence that oxytocin (OXT) release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node of the brain’s reward circuitry, is necessary to elicit social reward. During social interactions, activity in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) OXT neurons increased. Direct activation of these neurons in the PVN or their terminals in the VTA enhanced prosocial behaviors. Conversely, inhibition of PVN OXT axon terminals in the VTA decreased social interactions. OXT increased excitatory drive onto reward-specific VTA dopamine (DA) neurons. These results demonstrate that OXT promotes prosocial behavior through direct effects on VTA DA neurons, thus providing mechanistic insight into how social interactions can generate rewarding experiences.
“Gating of social reward by oxytocin in the ventral tegmental area” by Lin W. Hung, Sophie Neuner, Jai S. Polepalli, Kevin T. Beier, Matthew Wright, Jessica J. Walsh, Eastman M. Lewis, Liqun Luo, Karl Deisseroth, Gül Dölen, and Robert C. Malenka in Science. Published online September 29 2017 doi:10.11126/science.aan4994