Researchers recorded alterations in levels of both dopamine and serotonin in the brain when people perform perception and decision making based tasks.
Researchers found specific neurons in the striosome that help mice learn to avoid negative experiences.
Study reports the putamen, not just the cortex, contributes to the brain's ability to multitask.
Dopamine receptors have different molecular features and functions depending on their anatomical location within the striatum. The findings could help develop better-targeted treatments for a range of disorders from schizophrenia to Parkinson's disease.
During memory tasks, people with psychosis have different patterns of activity in the prefrontal and mediotemporal brain areas compared to those without the disorder. When exposed to cannabidiol (CBD), the activity of the brain areas became more like those seen in the controls for people with psychosis. Patients reported a decrease in symptoms of psychosis following one dose of CBD. Researchers stress that no definitive conclusions could be made about the effectiveness of CBD use over a sustained period.
10% of patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease are between the ages of 21 and 50. For those with young-onset Parkinson's disease, researchers report the foundations for the disease may have been apparent before they were born. The study also points to a drug, currently approved to treat precancerous skin growths, that has the potential to reduce elevated levels of alpha-synuclein.
Methylphenidate may boost norepinephrine levels in the prefrontal cortex, which in turn regulates dopaminergic neurons firing in the striatum, when a reward is delivered. The study sheds new light on how medications for ADHD affect the reward system in the brain.
Using RNA sequencing, researchers have created a spatiomolecular map of the striatum, an area of the brain implicated in decision making and addiction.
Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) levels are significantly reduced in the striatum in those with schizophrenia. A lack of MOR system stimulation contributes to negative feelings, such as a lack of motivation and anhedonia, associated with the condition. Increasing MOR levels could help to reduce some of the symptoms of schizophrenia.