Hippocampal neurons become longer and stronger following a period of sleep deprivation. The study supports the hypothesis that sleep may weaken synapses, which are strengthened from learning, allowing for learning to occur after waking.
Awakening dormant stem cells could stimulate the growth of new neurons. The findings could have significant implications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Flies lacking Ets21c died much faster when exposed to oxidative stress. Findings reveal a new molecular switch that could be responsible for a longer life and stress resilience.
Skin and liver cells appear to have their own circadian clock. Both the liver and skin respond to changes in light and maintain critical function, independent of the brain's circadian rhythm.
A metabolite produced by lactic acid bacteria binds to the third hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCA), signalling the immune system. Researchers believe the receptor evolved to allow great apes to consume foods that were starting to decay. They suggest the receptor could mediate some beneficial and anti-inflammatory effects of lactic acid in humans, and could serve as a target to treat inflammatory diseases.
A combination of chronic stress and high-calorie diets raised insulin levels tenfold in the amygdala of mice. Prolonged high levels of insulin in the central amygdala resulted in neurons becoming desensitized to insulin. The desensitized neurons boosted NPY levels, which promoted eating and reduced the normal homeostasis response to burn calories. The findings may shed light on why some indulge in high-calorie foods when stressed, and why this may lead to obesity.
Prepronociceptin expressing neurons in the central amygdala become activated by consuming palatable foods. Reducing nociceptin making neurons in mice reduced binge eating when the animals had access to calorie-rich foods, without affecting the intake of ordinary dietary needs. The finding could help in the development of new therapies to combat obesity and binge eating.
DIPG cancer cells exposed to MI-2 fail to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol and die quickly, by inhibiting lanosterol synthase. Additionally, while MI-2 destroys glioma cancer cells, the drug does not damage healthy brain cells.
Hydration signals from the gut travel via the vagus nerve to activate thirst neurons in the SFO. These neurons signal to cells in the median preoptic nucleus, driving animals to drink and the kidneys to conserve water in the bloodstream.
Researchers report fasting affects the circadian rhythm of the liver and skeletal muscles, allowing them to rewire their metabolism. The study suggests fasting can help improve health and protect against aging related diseases.