Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) causes a malfunction of astrocytes in the cingulate cortex. Manipulating astrocytes in the cingulate cortex reversed the disfunction, preventing an increase in migraine-like symptoms in mice carrying the FHM2 defect.
Glioma brain tumors alter the function of astrocytes, possibly contributing to seizures many brain cancer patients experience. Astrocytes encasing gliomas exhibit different molecular signatures based on their proximity to the cancer cells. Those directly touching the cancer cells become elongated and swollen, mimicking the astrocyte's response to other epilepsy-related brain injuries.
A single neuron, through its axon, is capable of simultaneously producing different effects in separate areas of the cerebral cortex.
A drug commonly prescribed for edema improves the symptoms for young children on the autism spectrum with no significant side effects. The drug, bumetanide, decreases the ratio of GABA to glutamate in the brain.
Hangxiety, the feeling of waking up with anxiety the morning after heavy drinking, is a common symptom associated with a hangover. Researchers explain how a heavy night's drinking alters neurochemistry, leaving some of us prone to waking with anxiety.
Researchers explore the biology behind hangovers, including how excessive alcohol consumption alters glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine. The paper also examines how to reduce the effects of a heavy night's drinking.