Peripheral and brain markers for fear differ in a hormone dependent manner between males and females.
Study identifies six psycho-acoustically distinct types of screams, relaying emotions such as pain, anger, fear, joy, sadness, and pleasure. Non-alarming screams, such as expressions of joy and pleasure, are perceived and processed by the brain more effectively than screams of alarm.
When people hear screams of excited happiness, they tend to confuse the emotion with fear. Researchers say the bias toward categorizing excited and joyfully screams as fear has evolutionary roots.
Constant exposure to images of syringes and people getting the COVID-19 vaccine on TV and social media may discourage those with phobias of needles from getting their shots, researchers report.
Following exposure to visual stimuli, the neurons activated by the stimuli remain more active during subsequent sleep. Sleep is vital for these neurons to connect an emotional or fearful memory to a sensory event.
Sleep deprivation reduces the brain's ability to unlearn fear-related memories, a new study reports.
The expression of the CREB gene may function as a switch to regulate fear and extinction learning. The findings could provide a new avenue of treatment for PTSD and other mental health disorders.