Patients with Corpus Callosum Dysgenesis (CCD), a genetic condition marked by incomplete development of the connecting structures between the brain hemispheres, have distinct reconfiguration of their neural connections, researchers report.
Combining brain scan images with machine learning, researchers identified a number of brain changes following TBI that share similarities with Alzheimer's disease. The findings add to the growing body of evidence that the two conditions follow the same trajectories.
Researchers discover how the brain adapts in a study of children born without a corpus callosum.
People with schizophrenia have lower levels of S1P, a type of fatty molecule found in white matter. Evaluating post mortem tissue of those who died from a range of psychiatric disorders, researchers found the decreased levels of S1P in the brain was only attributed to those with schizophrenia. The findings could lead to new targeted treatments for the mental health disorder.
Researchers have identified 107 mutations in the RNA helicase DDX3X that cause cortical malformations in the developing brain. As the DDX3X gene is carried by the X chromosome, the associated developmental problems are more likely to occur in females. In severe cases, the functional changes in DDX3X resulted in a smaller or missing corpus callosum. Almost all of the mutations occurred de novo, meaning they happened during early development rather than being inherited from a parent. Researchers say the malfunction can now be considered to be a development disability syndrome.
Fractional anisotropy values are reduced in the corpus callosum and middle orbital gyrus in obese teens. Researchers also discovered a positive correlation between these brain changes and neuroinflammation, insulin levels, and leptin resistance.
In mice genetically engineered to carry human stuttering mutations, vocalization defects are derived from abnormalities in astrocytes in the corpus callosum.
Methylphenidate, a drug given to help treat ADHD, affects specific tract in white matter in young boys. The effects are age dependant as the changes were not observed in adults who use the treatment. Researchers say the drug should only be given to children if they are significantly affected by ADHD in their daily lives.
Side impact to the head can lead to rotational accelerations what cause mechanical vibrations to concentrate in the corpus callosum and periventricular region of the brain. Trauma to the side of the head can lead to concussions.
NAPRT1, a gene that encodes an enzyme involved in vitamin B3 metabolism, may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Knocking out the gene in zebrafish models, researchers discovered brain development became impaired. Without NAPRT1, the fish brains failed to divide symmetrically, which is significant as defects in the corpus callosum have been identified in those with schizophrenia.
Teenagers who were exposed to alcohol while in the womb are more likely to have disruptions in neural connections through the corpus callosum, which can lead to cognitive impairment and a range of neurological, and psychological disorders. Researchers recommend pregnant women completely abstain from drinking alcohol.