Summary: Parents who use marijuana and alcohol are more likely to use both non-violent and violent discipline on their children than those who do not use substances. The annual frequency of physical abuse was 0.5 times higher in those parents who had used alcohol and marijuana in the past year.
Source: Ohio State University
Sorry, marijuana moms and dads: Using pot may not make you a more relaxed parent, at least when it comes to how you discipline your children.
A study of California parents found that current marijuana users administered more discipline techniques of all kinds to their children on average than did non-users. That includes everything from timeouts to, in some cases, physical abuse.
“The acceptability of marijuana is growing in the United States and with that, more parents feel free to use the drug, sometimes even in front of their children,” said Bridget Freisthler, co-author of the study and professor of social work at The Ohio State University.
“Some parents claim it makes them a better, more relaxed parent, but that may not be the case.”
The effect of marijuana use on parenting is a relevant concern: A 2017 survey from Yahoo News and Marist College found that 54 percent of adults who use marijuana in the United States are parents. A majority of those parents have children under the age of 18. Some groups of “marijuana moms” claim that use makes them better parents.
The results of this new study suggest that marijuana users – who are nearly always (92 percent of the time) also alcohol users – are trying to control their kids more than non-users, Freisthler said.
“It appears that users may be quicker than other parents to react to minor misbehavior,” she said.
“We can’t tell from this study, but it may be that parents who use marijuana or alcohol don’t want their children to spoil the buzz they have, or bother them when they have a hangover.”
Freisthler conducted the study with Nancy Jo Kepple of the University of Kansas. Their results were published online this week in the Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions.
The researchers interviewed 3,023 randomly selected California parents of children 12 years old or younger by telephone in 2009. They asked participants about their recent use (in the past year) and past use (a year or more ago) of alcohol, marijuana, methamphetamine, and other drugs.
They also asked how often the parents used non-violent discipline (such as timeouts or taking away privileges), corporal punishment (such as spanking) and physical abuse (such as hitting a child with a fist).
This is one of the first studies to look at how the use of specific types of substances is related to a variety of parental discipline practices in the general population, Freisthler said.
The findings revealed that parents who used marijuana in the past year tended to use more of all types of discipline compared to non-users, even after taking into account a variety of other factors that could impact the use of discipline, such as parental stress and depression and child and parent demographics. The same was true of alcohol users.
Parents who had used alcohol or marijuana in the past, but were not at the time of the research interview, also applied most types of discipline more often than did non-users.
And the more substances that parents used, the more often they disciplined their children in all types of ways, according to the study. For example, parents who reported using the most substances practiced physical abuse at a rate about 1.45 times greater than those who used only one substance.
Results showed that the annual frequency of physical abuse was 0.5 times higher among parents who used both alcohol and marijuana in the past year, compared to those who consumed only alcohol.
“The use of several different kinds of substances certainly is a warning sign that parents may be relying more heavily on discipline to control their children,” she said.
Freisthler said this study shows that while marijuana use has become more mainstream and is legal in more states, there is still a need for caution.
“Marijuana use is not risk-free. It affects a lot of behaviors, including parenting.”
Funding: The study was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Ohio State University
Bridget Freisthler – Ohio State University
The image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Closed access
“Types of Substance Use and Punitive Parenting: A Preliminary Exploration”. Bridget Freisthler & Nancy Jo Kepple.
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. doi:10.1080/1533256X.2019.1640019
Types of Substance Use and Punitive Parenting: A Preliminary Exploration
Very little is known about how the type of substance use is comparatively related to a range of parenting behaviors. We conduct a preliminary examination to ascertain effects of substance type on physical abuse compared with other child discipline tactics with data from a telephone survey in 2009 of 3,023 parents in 50 cities in California. Kruskal-Wallis tests and hierarchical generalized linear models are conducted to determine the relationship between substance type and frequency of nonviolent discipline, corporal punishment, and child physical abuse. Type of drug used is differentially related to use of discipline strategies in multivariate models. Nonviolent discipline and corporal punishment show a dose–response relationship when a parent who reported using more substances also reported using both types of discipline more frequently. We suggest that addiction professionals should consider partnering with a specialist in child development or child welfare to conduct in-depth assessments of parenting strategies among the highest-risk groups, such as those with past-year alcohol use or a history of polysubstance use or methamphetamine use.