Aromatic turmerone, a compound derived from turmeric essential oil, and its derivatives directly affect dopamine neurons to generate neuroprotective properties in tissue culture models of Parkinson's disease.
An examination of brainstems from children and young adults constantly exposed to air pollution reveals markers of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease. Findings suggest air pollution poses risks of serious neurological damage from an early age.
Researchers administered PTB antisense oligonucleotide treatment directly to the midbrain of mice. In the mouse models exposed to the treatment, a small subset of astrocytes converted to neurons, increasing the number of neurons by 30%. Three months after treatment, mice were completely free of Parkinson's disease symptoms and remained in remission for the rest of their lives.
Neurons in the caudal pedunculopontine nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates motor coordination, switch neurotransmitters from acetylcholine to GABA as a result of exercise. The switch appears to provide feedback control that regulates motor coordination and skill learning.
Researchers have identified a comprehensive circuit mechanism that governs how emotional states can influence movement through connections in the basal ganglia. The mechanism represents a way in which emotional states relate to changes in action control in depression, anxiety, and OCD.