Researchers temporarily switched off the neural pathway between the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in primate models, negatively impacting motivation, but not learning.
The key to performance and motivation lies within the ratio of glutamine and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. The ratio of glutamine to glutamate relates specifically to stamina.
Examining the brains of frequent cannabis users, researchers have identified a pattern of connectivity related to craving the substance. The findings add weight to the idea that brain regions do not work in isolation, but via the connectivity of multiple networks that signal to each other depending on state and need. Brain connectivity during cannabis cravings is not static but has fluctuations in connection patterns between the central executive network and nucleus accumbens.
Dopamine D2 receptor overexpression in cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens may explain why some are more prone to cocaine addiction than others.
Age, sex, and gender influence the organization of the brain's opioid system. Findings shed light on why there are significant differences between the opioid system on an individual level, and why some are more prone to developing opioid-linked pathologies than others.
Neuroimaging study reveals the neural basis for the motivation to reunite with the ones you love. The findings could lead to new therapies for disorders associated with social behaviors, and may also help explain why social distancing is so tough.
Cannabis use during youth enhances sensitivity to cocaine from the first exposure, a new rat study finds.
··6 min read
Combining neuroimaging data with artificial intelligence, researchers have identified two distinct neuroanatomical subtypes of schizophrenia. The first, more typical subtype is associated with a lower widespread volume of gray matter compared to healthy controls. In the second subtype, gray matter volume is largely similar to healthy brains.
Iron levels in the basal ganglia steadily increase throughout development and, in two sub-regions, continue to increase into adulthood. Decreased levels of iron in the putamen was correlated with impaired cognitive performance involving reasoning and spatial processing. Findings suggest the brain requires iron for healthy cognitive development.
Different types of reward have unique effects on the basal ganglia nuclei. Food rewards influence the left hemisphere of the brain, while erotic rewards engage the right lateral globus and left caudate. Financial rewards engage the basal ganglia bilaterally.