By inhibiting NMDA receptors, ketamine increases noise to gamma frequencies in one layer of the thalamic nucleus and one lay of the somatosensory cortex. Findings suggest psychosis may be triggered by an increase in background noise impairing thalamocortical neurons which may be caused by a malfunction in NMDA receptors affecting the balance of inhibition and excitation in the brain.
Ketamine alters neural activity in the cerebral cortex, silencing normally active neurons and activating neurons that are normally inactive. The ketamine activity-induced "switch" in brain regions associated with depression may help explain its treatment effects.
NYX-783, a newly discovered drug, helps modulate NMDA receptor function in neurons. The drug appears to be effective at suppressing the return of PTSD symptoms in rodent models.
Studying rats in a virtual reality maze, researchers discover certain hippocampal neurons play a vital role in a specific mechanism of navigation.
Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) causes a malfunction of astrocytes in the cingulate cortex. Manipulating astrocytes in the cingulate cortex reversed the disfunction, preventing an increase in migraine-like symptoms in mice carrying the FHM2 defect.
NMDA receptor hypofunction is involved in the reduction of sleep spindles and delta oscillations, which appear in the brain during deep natural sleep. Findings confirm the role NMDA receptors play in sleep disorders that accompany psychotic states.
A single shot of ketamine administered to heavy drinkers following reactivation of their drinking memories led to a rapid decrease in the urge to drink. The effect lasted for over nine months.
Bilirubin, a bile pigment most commonly associated with jaundice in newborns, appears to have neuroprotective properties. A new study in mice reveals bilirubin may protect the brain against oxidative stress.
A new study clarifies the mechanism behind how ketamine works as an antidepressant. Researchers say there is evidence to suggest ketamine binds to NMDA receptors, instead of opioid receptors. Reducing the belief that ketamine is an opioid may make patients with depression more open to using the treatment.