This shows a diagram of the gut

Bacteria in fermented food signal the human immune system, explaining health benefits

A metabolite produced by lactic acid bacteria binds to the third hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCA), signalling the immune system. Researchers believe the receptor evolved to allow great apes to consume foods that were starting to decay. They suggest the receptor could mediate some beneficial and anti-inflammatory effects of lactic acid in humans, and could serve as a target to treat inflammatory diseases.... Read More...
This shows neurons in the central amygdala

Comfort food leads to more weight gain during stress

A combination of chronic stress and high-calorie diets raised insulin levels tenfold in the amygdala of mice. Prolonged high levels of insulin in the central amygdala resulted in neurons becoming desensitized to insulin. The desensitized neurons boosted NPY levels, which promoted eating and reduced the normal homeostasis response to burn calories. The findings may shed light on why some indulge in high-calorie foods when stressed, and why this may lead to obesity.... Read More...
neurons in the CeA are shown

The neurobiology of noshing: Why is it so easy to overeat calorie-rich tasty foods?

Prepronociceptin expressing neurons in the central amygdala become activated by consuming palatable foods. Reducing nociceptin making neurons in mice reduced binge eating when the animals had access to calorie-rich foods, without affecting the intake of ordinary dietary needs. The finding could help in the development of new therapies to combat obesity and binge eating. ... Read More...