Hangxiety, the feeling of waking up with anxiety the morning after heavy drinking, is a common symptom associated with a hangover. Researchers explain how a heavy night's drinking alters neurochemistry, leaving some of us prone to waking with anxiety.
From reducing memory capability to increasing the risk of diabetes and obesity, researchers investigate how sugar affects the brain and body.
Schizophrenia is linked to alterations in pathways associated with glycosaminoglycan, neurotransmitter metabolism, and GABAergic synapses. A large percentage of genes related to schizophrenia are expressed differently between males and females. The results imply the mechanisms involved in schizophrenia development differ, at least slightly, between males and females.
A visual test may be a new tool in the diagnosis of autism. Individuals on the autism spectrum are slower to dampen neural activity in response to visual stimuli in the brain. Using EEG data collected from the visual region, researchers could predict with 87% accuracy whether or not a person had ASD.
Newly identified network in the hypothalamus alters feeding behaviors on a shorter timescale. The pathway affects food intake and body weight by releasing GABA, which may occur due to the detection, and not the consumption of food.
Genetic mutations, which occur in both the brain and gut, could be a main cause of autism. Using mouse models of ASD, researchers discovered the neuroligin-3 R451C mutation affects neural communication in the brain and causes dysfunction in the gut. The findings strengthen the gut-brain hypothesis of autism.
Using stem cells from candidates with Down syndrome to create an organoid, and employing mouse models, researchers pinpoint a gene linked to memory impairments and cognitive problems in Down syndrome. Inhibiting the OLIG2 gene leads to cognitive and memory improvements in mouse models of Down. Researchers hope their findings lead to an in utero treatment that targets the gene and helps reverse abnormal brain development.
Disruptions in the supply of allopregnanolone, a hormone created by the placenta late in pregnancy, to the developing fetus can leave children more vulnerable to brain injuries associated with ASD. Losing the supply of ALLO alters cerebellar development, an area of the brain critical for motor coordination and social cognition, impacting the post-birth development of cerebellar white matter. An experimental model revealed deficient cerebellar white matter resulted in social impairments and an increase in repetitive behaviors, two hallmark features associated with autism.
Astrocytes can alter neurons to drive behaviors associated with ADHD. Researchers believe astrocytes may be used to develop targeted treatments for behavioral deficits associated with a range of mental illnesses.
Study reveals anesthesia activated neurons have been discovered in the hypothalamus. Activation of AANs promotes slow-wave sleep, extending the effects of anesthesia, while inhibition of AANs shortens the duration of general anesthetics and disrupts natural sleep.
Administering oxytocin blocks the enhanced motivation for drinking alcohol that fuels alcohol use disorder by blocking GABA signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala.