Using stem cells from candidates with Down syndrome to create an organoid, and employing mouse models, researchers pinpoint a gene linked to memory impairments and cognitive problems in Down syndrome. Inhibiting the OLIG2 gene leads to cognitive and memory improvements in mouse models of Down. Researchers hope their findings lead to an in utero treatment that targets the gene and helps reverse abnormal brain development.
Disruptions in the supply of allopregnanolone, a hormone created by the placenta late in pregnancy, to the developing fetus can leave children more vulnerable to brain injuries associated with ASD. Losing the supply of ALLO alters cerebellar development, an area of the brain critical for motor coordination and social cognition, impacting the post-birth development of cerebellar white matter. An experimental model revealed deficient cerebellar white matter resulted in social impairments and an increase in repetitive behaviors, two hallmark features associated with autism.
Astrocytes can alter neurons to drive behaviors associated with ADHD. Researchers believe astrocytes may be used to develop targeted treatments for behavioral deficits associated with a range of mental illnesses.
Study reveals anesthesia activated neurons have been discovered in the hypothalamus. Activation of AANs promotes slow-wave sleep, extending the effects of anesthesia, while inhibition of AANs shortens the duration of general anesthetics and disrupts natural sleep.
Administering oxytocin blocks the enhanced motivation for drinking alcohol that fuels alcohol use disorder by blocking GABA signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala.
Study implicates disrupted autophagy and protein aggregation in the pathogenesis of autism schizophrenia and social behavior deficits in other disorders.
Researchers have developed a new model of mitochondrial epilepsy which captures specific features observed in patients. The new model may help provide better therapies and treatments for the condition.
Researchers have developed new therapeutic molecules that appear to assist in reversing memory loss associated with depression and aging.
Researchers have identified and isolated a gut bacterium which appears to have a significant link to depression.
A new study reports brain connectivity appears to be dictated by the spatial architecture of neurons, rather than the cell type-specific cues.
A new study reveals how NCOR1/2 regulates memory involving a newly identified circuit between the lateral hypothalamus and hippocampus. Researchers believe the findings could have implications for future studies related to ASD and neurodegenerative diseases.