Fear extinction memories and feelings of reward are both stored in neurons that express the Ppp1r1b gene in the posterior of the basolateral amygdala.
Mice infected with the Toxoplasma gondii parasite showed no selective reduction in fear of feline predators. Findings reveal chronic T. gondii infection reduces anxiety and risk-aversion while increasing curiosity and exploratory behaviors.
Children who exhibit less fear and desire for social connection, and who engage less in imitative behaviors, are more likely to develop callous-unemotional traits which may later lead to antisocial behaviors.
Traumatic brain injury caused five times as many neurons in the amygdala to be active during white noise exposure in rats. Altered sensory processing within subcortical sensory-emotional networks following TBI impacts the facilitation of traumatic memory and may contribute to the development of PTSD.
Study reports the mysterious symptoms suffered by diplomats in Havana during 2016 and 2017 may have been caused by emotional trauma and fear. The authors claim Havana Syndrome is akin to "shell shock" symptoms, associated with war trauma.
Inhibitory inputs to the neural circuit between the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST) to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) increase when a person is in chronic pain. This alteration is mediated by enhanced corticotropin-releasing factor signaling within the dlBNST, leading to suppression of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. The result is depressive mood and anhedonia associated with chronic pain.
Study identifies three distinct types of teen popularity, prosocial popular, aggressive popular, and bistrategic popular or Machiavellian. The Machiavellian teens were considered most popular, despite being above average on both physical and relational aggression traits, as they displayed the most prosocial behavior.
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors, a form of medication that boosts endocannabinoids, may be helpful in the treatment of PTSD. FAAH inhibition can improve the recall of fear extinction memories. The drugs could also help treat stress and other psychological disorders.
Stress can have an impact on voice disorders. Researchers found those with higher salivary cortisol levels also exhibited brain activity that impacted the larynx. Those who were more introverted were more likely to have stress reactions related to speech.