Severe adversity experienced in childhood increases the risk of being diagnosed with ADHD later in life.
A structural brain scaffold in infants serves as a foundation for literacy. Language and reading may refine this pre-existing brain scaffold. The study also reveals robust language networks activate while children sleep if stories are read to them during slumber.
A worldwide scientific collaboration has produced the first genetic map of the cerebral cortex. The map identifies more than 300 genetic variants that influence cortical structure and play roles in psychiatric disorders.
Researchers have created the first genetic map of the cerebral cortex, which identifies over 300 genetic variants that influence the structure of the brain region.
The largest genetic map of mental health disorders to date reveals there are three groups of highly genetically related disorders among eight psychiatric disorders. A gene related to nervous system development is a risk factor for all eight disorders studied. The RBFOX1 gene is implicated in seven of the eight disorders. ADHD and depression share 44% of genetic risk factors common in the general population. 109 pleiotropic loci affect more than one disorder. These pleiotropic loci are within genes that show heightened expression in the brain through the lifespan, beginning during the second trimester of pregnancy.
Mothers who were prescribed macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin and azithromycin, early in pregnancy had an increased risk of their child being born with malformations, specifically cardiovascular malformations. However, researchers found no link between exposure to these antibiotics and an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Women who were obese prior to pregnancy were almost twice as likely to report their child had ADHD or other behavioral problems compared to women who were normal weight before pregnancy.
Children who were admitted to NICUs as babies are twice as likely to be diagnosed with mental health problems, including ADHD, phobias, and separation anxiety.
On average, girls on the autism spectrum are diagnosed 1.5 years later than boys. Over 50% of those on the autism spectrum exhibit co-occurring mental health and medical conditions, such as ADHD and epilepsy.
Children who experience elevated prenatal exposure to air pollution and exposure to early life stress have an increased risk of developing both attention problems and cognitive difficulties.
Methylphenidate may boost norepinephrine levels in the prefrontal cortex, which in turn regulates dopaminergic neurons firing in the striatum, when a reward is delivered. The study sheds new light on how medications for ADHD affect the reward system in the brain.