This shows a woman in a wheelchair.
For unknown reasons, it is more common in northern latitudes and more than twice as common in women. Credit: Neuroscience News

Novel Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Shows Promise

Summary: Researchers developed a small molecule drug showing potential as a new treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). This research focuses on targeting the glutamate system rather than the immune system, differing from existing MS therapies.

The drug not only reduced MS-like symptoms but also showed potential in repairing damaged myelin in two animal models. This innovative approach is a significant leap toward clinical trials, offering new hope for MS patients.

Key Facts:

  1. The new drug targets the glutamate system, a novel approach in MS treatment, showing effectiveness in pre-clinical models.
  2. The treatment has demonstrated the potential for rescuing myelin and motor function, key challenges in MS.
  3. CAMH and the University of Aberdeen are moving towards human trials, backed by extensive pre-clinical research and funding support.

Source: CAMH

CAMH-led pre-clinical studies using a small molecule drug have shown promise as a potential new treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS).

The results have been published today in the journal Science Advances.

Expanding on Dr. Fang Liu’s earlier work that identified a novel drug target for the treatment of MS, she and her team have now created a small molecule compound that is effective in two different animal models of MS. This represents a key advancement that brings this MS research closer to the clinic to impact patient care.

MS is a progressive neurological disease that currently has no cure.  It is associated with a wide-range of debilitating symptoms, including problems with coordination, cognition, muscle weakness and depression.  For unknown reasons, it is more common in northern latitudes and more than twice as common in women.

It is known that MS damages myelin, a protective sheath that forms around nerves in the brain and spinal cord. As the myelin damage is triggered by inflammation in the immune system, up until now all current drug treatments for MS target the immune system.

In this study, CAMH Senior Scientist Dr. Fang Liu and her team treated MS in a completely different way—targeting the glutamate system. Study results showed that the newly synthesized lead compound not only reduced MS-like symptoms, it also may repair the damaged myelin in two different pre-clinical models of MS.

“Our compound had a stunning effect on rescuing myelin and motor function in the lab models, and I hope these effects will translate to the clinic to add to current treatments and bring new hope to patients with MS,” said Dr. Liu.

“As with cancer chemotherapy drug cocktails, simultaneous targeting of the MS disease pathway at multiple points can have synergistic effects and result in better outcomes.”

Dr. Iain Greig, Reader in Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Aberdeen, alongside his team, are working to turn the molecules identified by Dr. Liu into advanced “drug-like” molecules suitable for continued development towards clinical use in patients.

He added: “In all my years as a medicinal chemist, I have never seen a more promising starting point for a drug development project.  It has been a huge pleasure to be involved in this program and I am looking forward to continuing to drive it towards to the clinic.”

Much of the funding for this novel treatment for MS, which Dr. Fang and her team have been investigating for over a decade, has come from the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society USA’s Fast Forward commercial research program.

“We are pleased to have helped enable the early development of a novel neuroprotective strategy for MS, and look forward to seeing it progress through the critical next stages needed to determine its potential benefits for people living with MS,” said Walt Kostich, PhD, head of the National MS Society (USA)’s Fast Forward commercial research program.

Dr. Liu believes that the evidence of efficacy and tolerability generated in this study for the small molecule drug makes it a good candidate to be developed for human trials.

The next steps in drug development will involve some further pre-clinical research, including investigating safety and stability of the compound. CAMH and the University of Aberdeen have already filed patent applications to protect this research and are actively seeking industry partners to further advance this work towards clinical trials over the next few years.

About this neuropharmacology and multiple sclerosis research news

Author: Hayley Clark
Source: CAMH
Contact: Hayley Clark – CAMH
Image: The image is credited to Neuroscience News

Original Research: Open access.
Small-molecule targeting AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity has therapeutic effects in mouse models Q1 for multiple sclerosis” by Fang Liu et al. Science Advances


Abstract

Small-molecule targeting AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity has therapeutic effects in mouse models Q1 for multiple sclerosis

While most research and treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) focus on autoimmune reactions causing demyelination, it is possible that neurodegeneration precedes the autoimmune response.

Hence, glutamate receptor antagonists preventing excitotoxicity showed promise in MS animal models, though blocking glutamate signaling prevents critical neuronal functions.

This study reports the discovery of a small molecule that prevents AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity by targeting an allosteric binding site. A machine learning approach was used to screen for small molecules targeting the AMPA receptor GluA2 subunit.

The lead candidate has potent effects in restoring neurological function and myelination while reducing the immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalitis and cuprizone MS mouse models without affecting basal neurotransmission or learning and memory.

These findings facilitate development of a treatment for MS with a different mechanism of action than current immune modulatory drugs and avoids important off-target effects of glutamate receptor antagonists.

This class of MS therapeutics could be useful as an alternative or complementary treatment to existing therapies.

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