Summary: Positive messages about unity and togetherness are more effective at getting people to mask up and protect against COVID-19 than messages based on fear.
Source: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Many organizations are looking at effective ways to communicate the importance of wearing a mask, especially as highly transmissible new strains of coronavirus threaten to cause a surge in infections.
Experts at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill suggest positive messages are critical to supporting the effort.
Their findings, described in a study published in December in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, give public health experts, leaders and communicators critical insight to craft messaging that could potentially increase mask usage during the pandemic.
“As science evolved during the pandemic, it became clear wearing masks was going to be a critical step,” said Allison Lazard, associate professor at the UNC Hussman School of Journalism and Media. “But there just isn’t much out there for evidence-based messaging, especially not for what might motivate people to wear face coverings.”
Lazard led the study with Victoria Shelus, doctoral student in health behavior at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health and the Carolina Population Center. Researchers conducted six virtual focus groups with residents in North Carolina to gain a better understanding of when and why they are using face coverings, as well as potential insights for messaging that might improve rates of usage.
Focus group diversity, perspectives on mask wearing
The six focus groups featured participants from many demographics, including Latinx (English- and Spanish-speaking); Black, Indigenous and people of color (BIPOC); white and living in a rural area; and young adults aged 18-25.
Focus group participants reported that they wore face coverings frequently when in public, indoor settings – including grocery stores, health care facilities and religious services – but did not wear them when outside and able to practice physical distancing. Participants also reported forgoing masks while home alone or with household members, as well as in indoor office settings with co-workers.
Study participants were primarily motivated to wear masks to protect and respect the safety of fellow community members, especially family who are at higher risk of complications from infection. Focus groups commonly believed that masks were effective and that wearing one was a matter of personal responsibility. The authority of mask mandates and public health guidance also played a motivating role.
Conversely, participants did not use masks in situations where they did not feel their use was necessary, such as around family and trusted friends or colleagues. The study reported that “these interactions were not perceived as occurring in public. These perceptions are problematic, as cluster infections among family, friends and colleagues remain a common pattern for COVID-19 transmission.”
Social challenges prevented some from wearing masks or asking others to wear them out of fear of causing offense. Some cited barriers related to physical challenges and low perception of susceptibility. In addition to confusion about whether masks protected the wearer or only others around them, some participants were confused by guidance at the beginning of the pandemic that called for masks to be reserved only for health care personnel. And while infrequent, myths and conspiracy theories surrounding facial coverings caused concern.
Issues related to identity – such as political affiliation, or the perception that masks were “uncool,” “not masculine” or an infringement on individual rights – also created challenges. According to the study, “even participants who consistently wore face coverings disliked being told what to do.”
In discussion of potential communication strategies with the focus groups, concise and positive messages about togetherness and unity were more appealing than messages of fear or instructiveness. Stories that conveyed the personal effects of COVID-19 were particularly impactful, such as accounts from health care workers or those who had lost a loved one to the virus.
“As COVID-19 cases continue to rise in North Carolina and across the United States, there is an urgent need for effective messaging to encourage the use of face coverings,” said Shelus.
“Among our recommendations is a need for public health messaging to normalize the use of masks in social settings. We’re seeing a rise in COVID-19 cases from unmasked indoor interactions with family and friends over the holidays, and this may continue over the winter months.”
Following the focus groups, the study team launched a broader survey to ask more individuals in North Carolina about what might help to motivate them to wear a face mask.
The insights from this survey were similar to those gained in the study — residents want to protect others and themselves, and they want positive messages to encourage them to do so.
“We are pleased to see our insights incorporated in the ‘Whatever Your Reason’ campaign that the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services has launched statewide to encourage everyone to ‘get behind the mask,'” said Lazard.
Motivations and Barriers for the Use of Face Coverings during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Messaging Insights from Focus Groups
Widespread use of face coverings is a key public health strategy to prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, few studies have examined why Americans use or do not use face coverings, and little is known about the most effective messaging strategies. This study explored perceptions of face coverings, including motivations and barriers for use, and examined reactions to messaging promoting the use of face coverings. Six virtual focus groups were conducted with 34 North Carolina residents in July 2020. Participants reported high compliance with face covering recommendations but often did not wear them around family, friends, and colleagues. The most prevalent motivation for the use of face coverings was to protect or respect other people, including high-risk populations and individuals. Other motivators were self-protection, responsibility, desire for control, requirements, and expert advice. Barriers included physical and social discomfort, confusion or misinformation, low perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, and perceptions of identity and autonomy. Even among individuals who frequently wear face coverings, there are opportunities to improve compliance. Messaging should highlight how face coverings protect the wearer and others around them, normalize the use of face coverings in social settings, and emphasize requirements. Positive messages that focus on unity, personal experiences and the rationale for face coverings are recommended.