Sense of smell, pollution and neurological disease connection explored

Summary: Damaged olfactory neurons as a result of air pollution may contribute to altered cerebrospinal fluid flow and turnover, acting as a potential mechanism for the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

Source: Penn State

A consensus is building that air pollution can cause neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, but how fine, sooty particles cause problems in the brain is still an unanswered question. Now a team of Penn State researchers, using mice, have found a possible way, but more research is still needed.

The researchers looked at how cerebrospinal fluid, the liquid that flows around the brain and spinal cord, flows out through the nose, and what happens when the flow of fluid is stopped.

“There has been a lot of interest in understanding cerebrospinal fluid movement in the last 5 years,” said Patrick Drew, Huck Distinguished Associate Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Neurosurgery and Biomedical Engineering. “More and more it is realized that it does not just cushion the brain, but may also transfer stuff out of the brain and spinal column area.”

The question, however, is how does the cerebrospinal fluid — or CSF — leave the enclosed area of the brain and spinal column and where does it go? Research into old scientific papers indicated that some scientists had speculated that one exit pathway was through the nose.

“I was trying to label cerebrospinal fluid with a dye for another experiment,” said Jordan N. Norwood, a graduate student in cellular and developmental biology and Drew’s student. “We started seeing this dyed cerebrospinal fluid drain out through the nose.”

More research into old scientific papers showed that not only had others suggested that the cerebrospinal fluid left through the nose, but that there was a connection to the sense of smell. The researchers also found that there is a long-held connection between loss of smell and the early beginnings of such neurological diseases as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Using chemical ablation, the researchers destroyed the olfactory sensory nerves that come through the mouse’s hard palate. Destruction of these nerves causes loss of the sense of smell, but also caused the flow of cerebrospinal fluid to stop.

“The mice seem normal after we used zinc sulfate to ablate the nerves in the nose,” said Drew.

Because the flow of fluid from the nose stopped, the researchers checked to see if the pressure around the brain and in the spinal cord increased.

“Animals and people are constantly making CSF so if it doesn’t go out, the pressure will go up,” said Drew. “But we found that the pressure did not increase after the flow from the nose stopped.”

The researchers believe that some other pathway may increase its flow or CSF to compensate for what would normally go out through the nose. These other pathways could include those around the brain that drains into the lymphatic system.

Another possibility is that the production of CSF decreases in response to stoppage of CSF flow through the nose.

The researchers suggest in a recent issue of eLife, “that damage to olfactory sensory neurons (such as from air pollution) could contribute to altered CSF turnover and flow, providing a potential mechanism for neurological disease.” They also state that “reduced CSF turnover may be a contributing factor to the buildup of toxic metabolites and proteins that cause neurodegenerative disorders.”

Both the effects of pollution and the effects of reduced CSF turnover might explain the origin of some of these diseases.

“By ablating the neurons, we were able to disrupt and disable flow in the nose,” said Norwood.

“People in areas with heavy air pollution may be breathing stuff that does the same thing as our experiments.

This is a schematic of the mouse olfactory system

Schematic of the mid-sagittal plane of the mouse skul and brain. The pathway of cerebrospinal fuid flow is shown by blue arrows, flowing around the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid drains from the brain and into the nasal cavity through a boy plate known as the cribriform plate. The image is credited to Patrick Drew, Penn State.

“Next we would like to collaborate with a lab in the Materials Research Institute that is working with soot or jet fuel particles to see if we get the same effect,” she added.

Other researchers on this project include Qinigguang Zhang, postdoctoral fellow in engineering science and mechanics; David Card, undergraduate in physics, since graduated; Amanda Craine, undergraduate in biomedical engineering; and Timothy M. Ryan, associate professor of anthropology and interim department head.

Funding: The McKnight Endowment Fund for Neuroscience, the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation supported this work.

About this neuroscience research article

Source:
Penn State
Media Contacts:
A’ndrea Elyse Messer – Penn State
Image Source:
The image is credited to Patrick Drew, Penn State.

Original Research: Open access
“Anatomical basis and physiological role of cerebrospinal fluid transport through the murine cribriform plate”. Jordan N Norwood, Qingguang Zhang, David Card, Amanda Craine, Timothy M Ryan, Patrick J Drew.
eLife. doi:10.7554/eLife.44278

Abstract

Anatomical basis and physiological role of cerebrospinal fluid transport through the murine cribriform plate

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows through the brain, transporting chemical signals and removing waste. CSF production in the brain is balanced by a constant outflow of CSF, the anatomical basis of which is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the anatomy and physiological function of the CSF outflow pathway along the olfactory sensory nerves through the cribriform plate, and into the nasal epithelia. Chemical ablation of olfactory sensory nerves greatly reduced outflow of CSF through the cribriform plate. The reduction in CSF outflow did not cause an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), consistent with an alteration in the pattern of CSF drainage or production. Our results suggest that damage to olfactory sensory neurons (such as from air pollution) could contribute to altered CSF turnover and flow, providing a potential mechanism for neurological diseases.

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