People with dyslexia experience difficulties when acoustic variation was added to speech sounds. In the absence of the variation, neural speech sound processing was consistent between dyslexic and typical readers. Difficulties in detecting linguistically relevant information during acoustic variation in speech may contribute to a dyslexic person's deficits in forming native language phoneme representations during infancy.
Brain connections strengthened with treatment from fast-acting antidepressants, such as ketamine, are consolidated during deep sleep. Researchers propose rapid antidepressant treatments share the ability to regulate both synaptic potentiation and homeostatic mechanisms, which may contribute to how the brain reorganizes its activity to defeat depression.
Researchers have developed a smart onesie that accurately measures the spontaneous and voluntary movements of infants from five months. The smart-clothing could help assess abnormal neurological and motor development in infants.
Short-term opioid use increases positive emotional experiences by intensifying feelings of pleasure and weakening negative emotions. This, researchers say, could be a contributing factor for later opioid addiction. However, the long term use of opioids alters the reward system, diminishing the initial sensitivity and blunting emotions.
Researchers report the ability to use sugar as food varies strongly between closely related species. The study identifies a genetic basis for this variation and could shed light on how human populations with different dietary histories may respond differently to modern, sugar rich diets.