The olfactory epithelium may be a hub for neurogenesis.
Researchers have identified 107 mutations in the RNA helicase DDX3X that cause cortical malformations in the developing brain. As the DDX3X gene is carried by the X chromosome, the associated developmental problems are more likely to occur in females. In severe cases, the functional changes in DDX3X resulted in a smaller or missing corpus callosum. Almost all of the mutations occurred de novo, meaning they happened during early development rather than being inherited from a parent. Researchers say the malfunction can now be considered to be a development disability syndrome.
Mice bred to be germ-free, and those treated with antibiotics showed a significant reduction in the ability to learn that a threatening danger was no longer present. Sequencing the RNA of microglia in the brains of the animals reveals altered gene expression in the immune cells, which play a role in remodeling how neurons connect during the learning process. Restoring the gut microbiota reverse the learning problems.
Researchers have created the most comprehensive 'parts list' of the human brain to date. They uncovered crucial differences between human and mouse brain cells. The findings may explain why many drugs used in research do not work in human models.
Prenatal stress can have an epigenetic impact on the future mental health of offspring. Adult children of women who experienced prenatal stress are more vulnerable to stress and other mental health disorders.
Rare variants in the DDX6 gene have been linked to significant disruption in the development of the central nervous system, affecting basic motor skills and resulting in intellectual disabilities.
Study illuminates the role of non-coding mutations in autism spectrum disorder. Researchers say non-coding mutations may also shed light on an array of other neurological and health disorders.
Projection neurons have been implicated in the progression of multiple sclerosis. A new study reports projection neurons are damaged by immune cells. This damage could contribute to both atrophy and cognitive changes associated with the disease.
HIV can persist in the nervous system, even when the virus is suppressed. Even when the virus is suppressed, neurocognitive problems associated with the infection can persist.
A study of marmoset monkeys reveals a genetic variation of the SLC6A4 repeat region may contribute to anxiety via neurochemical changes in brain areas associated with emotional processing.