Researchers identified a specific neural network that positively responds to melatonin following concussion in children. Results suggest melatonin may help compensate for normal brain function that has been interrupted due to injury caused by concussion and helps prevent sleep disturbances.
Analysis of over 2,000 brain scans revealed evidence of highly reproducible sex differences in the volume of different regions of the brain. On average, females had greater cortical volume in the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. Males had increased volume in the ventral temporal and occipital brain regions. Gene expression data suggest the potential role of sex chromosomes that contribute to the differences.
Using a novel imaging technique, researchers produce a whole mouse brain atlas, which reveals how alcohol addiction, and abstinence, alter the functional architecture of the brain.
Reduced gray matter volume in the insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may represent a genetically conferred predispositional risk factor for alcohol use disorder.
White matter tracts show increasing maturation with age from the back to the front of the brain. The maturations begin as a child reaches 9-12 years of age. The maturity correlates with a critical and formative period of development.
Four genetic regions have been identified as playing a role in left-handedness. Three of the four genes were associated with proteins involved in brain development and structure. Neuroimaging revealed those who were left-handed had increased functional connectivity between left and right language networks. Researchers also found correlations between the genetic regions associated with left-handedness and slightly reduced Parkinson's risk, but a slightly increased risk for schizophrenia.
Newly identified nerve pathway, which runs down the same side of the body, may bypass a damaged spinal cord. The findings could shed light on some neurological disorders such as referred itch or jogger's migraine.