Increased levels of Smad7 in T-cells is linked to multiple sclerosis-like symptoms in mice. In the intestines, the T-cells were more frequently activated and migrated to the central nervous system, where they triggered inflammation. Similar activation was seen in human patients with multiple sclerosis. The findings provide further evidence that multiple sclerosis may start in the intestines and spread via the CNS.
Incorporating sex (the biological attributes distinguishing males, females, or intersex individuals) and gender (psychological, social, and cultural factors which affect how a human identifies in society) could help improve scientific research, reduce bias and create new opportunities for innovation.
Microglia play a critical role in reorganizing neural connections, fighting infections, and repairing damage to neurons while we sleep.
Examining postmortem brains of ASD patients, researchers discover an accumulation of immune cells surrounding blood vessels in the brain. They also found blebs accumulating around blood vessels that contained astrocyte debris. The findings suggest autism may be an autoimmune disorder.
The fetal gut has far better developed immune capabilities than previously thought. The findings could help develop new maternal vaccines and provide early insight into potential autoimmune disorders, which may occur later in life.
APOE4 increases the inflammatory response of human microglia while reducing cellular migration. The gene also impairs the metabolic activity of the immune cells. The findings show APOE4 has a profound impact on the basic functions of microglia.
Microglia may play a significant role in disrupting neurogenesis in those with Alzheimer's disease. When mice were given drugs which caused microglial cells to die, neurogenesis returned to normal.
Projection neurons have been implicated in the progression of multiple sclerosis. A new study reports projection neurons are damaged by immune cells. This damage could contribute to both atrophy and cognitive changes associated with the disease.
Maternal exposure to infection prior to pregnancy can transfer into life long cellular immunity in infants who are breastfed.