Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-6 stimulate the expression of the schizophrenia-related C4A gene. Patients with high C4A expression displayed increased levels of IL-1 beta in cerebral spinal fluid samples. C4A levels were also correlated with markers of synaptic density. Findings reveal inflammation enhances the genetic risk variant for schizophrenia.
Blood samples taken from older adults who experienced social isolation had higher levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, two biomarkers of inflammation.
Regular exercise modulates iron storage and trafficking in the brain and skeletal muscles, and physical activity reduces cortical hepcidin. The findings reveal how exercise can be beneficial for those with Alzheimer's disease.
Researchers have identified 27 protein biomarkers that can predict whether a patient with COVID-19 is likely to develop severe coronavirus symptoms.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, enters human cells by attaching to ACE2 and utilizing TMPRSS2. Drugs that block ACE2 or inhibit the enzyme could help treat the coronavirus, but only during early infection. As the infection progresses, SARS-CoV-2 becomes engulfed in human cells, reducing the number of ACE2 receptors on a cell and leading to an increase of angiotensin II in the blood. Angiotensin II triggers an inflammatory pathway, providing a positive feedback cycle, named IL-6 amplifier, resulting in excessive immune activation and the cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-19.
Anakinra, a clinically approved anti-inflammatory used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, improves respiratory function in patients with severe COVID-19 infection.
UCSD has launched a Phase III clinical trial to assess whether tocilizumab (Actemra), a drug commonly prescribed for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders, has therapeutic value for those at risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. The drug is a monoclonal antibody-based therapy that blocks receptors for interleukin-6, a cytokine that triggers inflammation as an early immune response to coronavirus. Blocking IL-6 could prevent the risk of the COVID-19 associated cytokine storm many with severe infection experience.
Socially isolated individuals may have an increased risk of physical inflammation in the body. Researchers found social isolation was associated with the presence of C-reactive protein and increased levels of glycoprotein fibrinogen. The link between social isolation and physical inflammation was more common in males.
Interleukin-6 interacts with leptin in the lateral parabrachial nucleus to reduce food intake. Reducing IL-6 in the IPBL increases weight gain and could help explain why some are more prone to overeating and obesity.
CGRP, a protein associated with migraine pain, appears to act differently between sexes. Researchers say a female-specific mechanism of downstream CGRP receptor activation is likely to contribute to the higher prevalence of migraine in women.