A newly identified serotonin pathway that originates from the median raphe nucleus acts in opposition to the reward/aversion pathway in the nearby dorsal raphe nucleus. The findings could pave the way for the development of new treatments for major depression, addiction, and other disorders associated with serotonin.
Inhibiting imitation of others increases empathy and allows people to recognize the facial expression of others, regardless of their situation.
In rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation in one joint is transmitted to other joints via the sensory neuron connections in the spinal cord, leading to inflammation in the other joints. Inflammation in one joint led to an increase in ATP in other joints, which triggered an increase of a signaling molecule that resulted in inflammation. Blocking the pathway reduced the spread of inflammation.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on our perceptions of facemask wearers. Those who wore facemasks were considered healthier and more attractive than those without masks, a new study reports.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, enters human cells by attaching to ACE2 and utilizing TMPRSS2. Drugs that block ACE2 or inhibit the enzyme could help treat the coronavirus, but only during early infection. As the infection progresses, SARS-CoV-2 becomes engulfed in human cells, reducing the number of ACE2 receptors on a cell and leading to an increase of angiotensin II in the blood. Angiotensin II triggers an inflammatory pathway, providing a positive feedback cycle, named IL-6 amplifier, resulting in excessive immune activation and the cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-19.
Inhibitory inputs to the neural circuit between the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST) to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) increase when a person is in chronic pain. This alteration is mediated by enhanced corticotropin-releasing factor signaling within the dlBNST, leading to suppression of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. The result is depressive mood and anhedonia associated with chronic pain.
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Whether a person is familiar to the animal or not, horses integrate human facial expressions and vocal tones to perceive human emotion, a new study reports.
According to a PNAS study, the RNAs of tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are transported from the cell body to dendrites. The viral RNAs then reproduce the viruses within the dendrites, disturbing neural activity.