Study reveals how gene control mechanisms determine the identity of neurons in the embryonic brainstem. A failure in differentiation in developing brainstem neurons can lead to behavioral abnormalities, including ADHD.
An examination of brainstems from children and young adults constantly exposed to air pollution reveals markers of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease. Findings suggest air pollution poses risks of serious neurological damage from an early age.
Exercise increases levels of galanin in the brain stem, making mice more resilient to stress.
Neural networks that are directly responsible for the coordination of walking movements are located in the spinal cord. A specific group of neurons in the brainstem signal to the spinal cord and control direction.
Researchers identified 48 common genetic variants that appear to play a role in the size of the brainstem and other subcortical structures. Forty of the variants were novel. The findings also revealed 199 genes related to the variants which regulate brain development and susceptibility to neurological disorders.
A new study reveals the prefrontal cortex may play a role in coordinating the level of consciousness through the cholinergic system.