Researchers report activating a pathway between the amygdala and brain stem helps to relieve pain and reduce defensive behaviors in rat models.
Patients who suffer from frontotemporal dementia with extrapyramidal symptoms have brainstem atrophy and reduced metabolic activity in specific brain regions compared to those with FTD without extrapyramidal symptoms.
Study reveals how gene control mechanisms determine the identity of neurons in the embryonic brainstem. A failure in differentiation in developing brainstem neurons can lead to behavioral abnormalities, including ADHD.
Exercise increases levels of galanin in the brain stem, making mice more resilient to stress.
An examination of brainstems from children and young adults constantly exposed to air pollution reveals markers of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease. Findings suggest air pollution poses risks of serious neurological damage from an early age.
Researchers identified 48 common genetic variants that appear to play a role in the size of the brainstem and other subcortical structures. Forty of the variants were novel. The findings also revealed 199 genes related to the variants which regulate brain development and susceptibility to neurological disorders.
CGRP neurons found in subregions of the thalamus and brainstem relay multisensory threat information to the amygdala. These neural circuits are essential for the formation of aversive memories, a new study reports.
A small cluster of neurons in the brainstem regulates tempo and coordinates vocalization with breathing.