Neuroscientists have believed that three brain regions are critical for self-awareness: the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the medial prefrontal cortex. Patient R is helping a research team show that self-awareness is more a product of a diffuse patchwork of pathways in the brain—including other regions—rather than confined to specific areas.
Researchers have identified a population of neurons in the brainstem which are essential for mice to stop their locomotion.
Researchers identified 48 common genetic variants that appear to play a role in the size of the brainstem and other subcortical structures. Forty of the variants were novel. The findings also revealed 199 genes related to the variants which regulate brain development and susceptibility to neurological disorders.
Neural networks that are directly responsible for the coordination of walking movements are located in the spinal cord. A specific group of neurons in the brainstem signal to the spinal cord and control direction.