Pain-sensing neurons in the put secrete substance P, a molecule that protects against gut inflammation and tissue damage by boosting specific microbes in the gut. In people with inflammatory bowel disease, the pain-sensing neurons are diminished and there are significant disruptions in pain-signaling genes.
Abnormalities in astrocytes may play a critical role in some of the behavioral symptoms experienced by those with autism.
Seizures originate from an excess of excitatory over inhibitory neural activity in confined regions of the brain, and spread only when they overcome strong inhibitory activity in surrounding regions.
Synaptic vesicles are a major source of energy consumption in inactive neurons, a new study reports.
A drug currently being tested in cancer clinical trials appears to prevent dysfunction in an immune cell signaling pathway associated with Alzheimer's disease. Blocking the pathway could prevent Alzheimer's from developing and slow the progression of symptoms for those who already have the disease.
A unique subset of group 3 innate lymphoid cells spurs T cells to attack myelinated nerve fibers in mouse models of multiple sclerosis.
The way in which the brain's wiring aligns with patterns of activity may vary with age, sex, and genetics. The alignments may have implications on cognition, researchers report.