A new study of over 300,000 people that spans 57 countries reveals women are, on average, more empathetic than males. Consistent across all age groups and most nationalities, women tend to score higher on tests of cognitive empathy, or "theory of mind" than males.
By the age of two, most children are able to embark on pretend play and adopt a perspective that does not fit reality. This enables children to develop the ability to attribute perspective to others that they don't share. Findings suggest the ability to adopt perspectives, an important aspect of developing social cognition and the attribution of mental state, is already present in young children.
Those on the autism spectrum are more likely to consider the body and mind to be one, while those not on the autism spectrum are more likely to believe the body and the mind are separate entities.
Researchers report that within the visual processing areas, information about a personally familiar or visually familiar face is shared across the brains of those with the same friends or acquaintances. Additionally, shared information about personally familiar faces extends to areas of the brain implicated in social processing, suggesting there is shared social information across the brain.
Young children do not understand true or false belief, instead, they rely on perceptual access reasoning. The findings upend the longstanding belief that theory of mind is acquired by age four.
After 14,000 years of domestication, dogs have an edge in both cognition and people-reading skills over wolves.
Expectant fathers with higher levels of brain activation and oxytocin later endorsed a more "child-led" empathetic style of parenting once their child was born.
Reassessing years of research on Theory of Mind in autism, researchers argue the brains of those with ASD may be able to grasp what others think but may have a more difficult time processing the degree to which others think differently from themselves.
Study reveals two different brain structures are implicated in implicit and explicit theory of mind, and both regions mature at different ages to fulfill their function. The supramarginal gyrus matures earlier, enabling theory of mind to occur slightly earlier than believed. Full ability for theory of mind occurs at age four when the temporoparietal junction matures.