Infection with the SARS_CoV-2 virus causes dials down the action of olfactory receptors, resulting in smell loss associated with COVID-19.
Researchers found lymph-node-like structures close to glioma brain tumors in cancer patients. The study reveals immune cells within these structures can be activated to attack the brain tumor.
Some of the T cell epitopes targeting myelin in monkeys were the same as those found in humans. Researchers say linking these specific cells opens the doors to developing antiviral therapies that could be useful to treat newly diagnosed cases of MS in humans.
When T helper cells are absent in the brain, microglia remain suspended between the fetal and adult developmental state. Mice lacking brain T cells showed changes in behavior and defective synaptic pruning. The study reveals the critical role T cells play in the development of the brain.
In late-stage multiple sclerosis, inflammatory cells no longer enter the brain via the bloodstream, but instead the cells arise in memory from local memory cells inside the brain. The findings suggest during the late phases of multiple sclerosis, the disease is occurring entirely inside the brain.
Recovered coronavirus patients show a wide range of immune responses following the infection, with about half from a current study showing sustained antibodies two weeks later. Results indicate which parts of the virus are most effective at triggering the immune responses.
A new mathematical model examined the immune response in patients with coronavirus. The findings suggest adaptive immune response may kick in before target immune cells are depleted, slowing the infection. The interaction of the innate and adaptive immune response may explain why some with coronavirus experience a second wave infection, appearing to get better before the symptoms return and get worse. Other studies have shown those who received immunosuppressants at the start of infection had a better clinical outcome than those who did not.
People with OCD have six times higher Immuno-moodulin (Imood) expression that those without the disorder. Blocking Imood with the aid of an antibody reduced OCD-like behaviors in mouse models within a couple of days following treatment.
T cells that react to alpha-synuclein are most abundant in the early stages of Parkinson's disease but tend to disappear as the disease progresses. Signs of autoimmunity can appear in Parkinson's patients up to ten years before a diagnosis of the neurodegenerative disease. The detection of T cell response could be an early biomarker for Parkinson's, long before the physical symptoms begin to manifest.