Sadness, but not all negative emotions, heighten cravings to smoke and increases the likelihood of relapse.
Was your New Year's resolution to ditch a bad habit? Researchers explore the best ways to curb your withdrawal and explain why relapse isn't always such a bad thing.
The link between smoking, depression, and schizophrenia is due, in part, to a causal effect of tobacco use. Findings reveal that smoking increased the risk of schizophrenia and depression. Additionally, depression and schizophrenia increased the likelihood of a person becoming nicotine dependent.
In addition to being detrimental to general health, heavy smoking has a causal effect on facial aging. Heavy smoking affects facial attractiveness and spurs earlier and increased skin wrinkling.
Disputing other findings, researchers report there is no direct link between inflammation and depression. The study reports depression may only have a link to inflammation as a result of specific lifestyle features, such as smoking or obesity.
Smokers exposed to individual cigarettes with public health warnings written on them felt the products were offputting and depressing. When surveyed, those who smoke said printing messages on cigarettes would prolong the health message and had the potential to discourage smoking in young people.
Consuming nicotine and alcohol four hours before bedtime causes worse sleep continuity and sleep disruptions. Surprisingly, researchers found no link between caffeine consumption four hours before sleep and sleep disturbances for most people.
Using the Big Five model of personality traits, researchers found smokers were more likely to experience an increase in neuroticism over time. Quitting smoking did not have an impact on altering the negative personality traits.
Meta-analysis finds a two-fold increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis amongst those who smoke tobacco. Researchers speculate nicotine is most likely responsible for the link. They suggest future research looks at the link between e-cigarettes and a possible increased risk of psychosis in young adults, the largest consumer group for the products.
In utero exposure to nicotine could increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, researchers report. The findings raise concerns about both smoking and the use of nicotine replacement therapies during pregnancy.
A new study reports those with alcohol addiction who also smoke may be at an increased risk of neural damage. The study revealed higher levels of oxidative stress in the hippocampus, and a a decrease in neurotrophic factor in the striatum and frontal cortex in rats exposed to both alcohol and tobacco.