Mutations of the PTEN gene cause neurons to grow to twice the size and form four times the number of synaptic connections to other neurons as a normal neuron. Removing the RAPTOR gene, an essential gene in the mTORC1 signaling pathway, prevents the neuronal and synaptic overgrowth associated with PTEN mutations. Using Rapamycin to inhibit mTORC1 recues all the changes in neuronal overgrowth.
An over-production of eIF4E impairs microglial cells, hampering their ability to effectively prune synapses and leading to autism-like behaviors in male mouse models of ASD.
PTEN deficiency drives an increased expression of LOX. LOX attracts macrophages which protect gliobastoma brain cancer cells and provide growth factor support for the tumor, a new mouse study reveals.
Targeting the gene WWP1 with indole-3-carbinol, a compound found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, suppressed tumor growth in animal models of cancer.