Opioid use disorder affects genes associated with proinflammatory immune molecule encoding and genes associated with remodeling the extracellular matrix, suggesting the connection between neurons may be altered as a result of opioid use. Additionally, those with OUD have higher levels of microglia in the brain.
Researchers say older adults who feel lonely are twice as likely to use opioids to control pain, and 2.5 times more likely to be prescribed anti-anxiety medications and sedatives than those who have a more socially active lifestyle.
Alterations in long-term social behavior and gene expression were observed in the offspring of mice exposed to pain-killing opioids during pregnancy.
A newly developed experimental vaccine can diminish the fatal respiratory effects of carfentanil and fentanyl in rodent models.
35% of patients who used ketamine to manage pain reported significant side effects ranging from hallucination, out-of-body experiences, visual disturbances, and urinary dysfunction. 20% of the side effects were linked directly to ketamine, and 15% associated with ketamine in combination with other drugs.
Opiate exposure causes synaptic rewiring in the nucleus accumbens in addition to decreasing dendritic spines. The findings shed light into the neurobiology of opiate relapse.
Inflammation caused by opioid use to both the brain and gut may exacerbate symptoms of negative emotions associated with withdrawal. Targeting the inflammation could help alleviate the negative experiences of opioid withdrawal and prevent dependence.
Almost 1 in 5 people now use opioids to treat migraines. Researchers say a growing number of patients are using opioids to replace medications approved and specially designed to treat migraines, despite knowing the risks of opioid use.