Mouse and human studies reveal Interleukin-3 may modify immune responses in the brain that cause cell death and lead to Alzheimer's disease.
Post-mortem studies of COVID-19 patients revealed significant signs of neuroinflammation and impaired brain circuits which researchers believe were caused by the disease. Researchers said the changes noticed in the brains of COVID patients were similar to the changes that occur in both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Neuroinflammation may be a key player in the pathological brain changes produced as a result of chronic opioid use. Microglia is likely responsible for the majority of the changes.
COVID-19 can spark a severe immune response in the central nervous system, affecting immune cells in the vascular system and brain.
Researchers link the inflammation associated with chronic sinus infections to alterations in brain activity in networks that govern cognition, external stimuli, and introspection. The findings shed light on why people suffering from sinus infections often report poor concentration and other short-term cognitive problems.
Immune cells in the meninges monitor fluid released from the brain. If the fluid contains signs of infection, disease, or damage, the immune cells initiate an immune response to tackle the problem.
Researchers found hallmarks of damage caused by thinning and leaky blood vessels in brain samples of people after contracting COVID-19, but saw no evidence of SARS_CoV_2 in the tissue samples. Findings suggest the damage was not caused by a direct viral attack on the brain, but by the body's immune response to the infection.
Behavioral changes in those with T.gondii infection could be linked to lower levels of norepinephrine. Norepinephrine also controls inflammation. Both neuroinflammation and norepinephrine are associated with a range of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and ADHD.
IgA cells that originate in the gut play a role appear to have neuroprotective properties against diseases associated with neuroinflammation, such as meningitis.