A new clinical trial is underway to test ibudilast, an asthma drug approved in Japan, for the treatment of severe COVID-19. Ibudilast is a MIF inhibitor. MIF is a gene that regulates immune response and is a driver of inflammation which results in the cytokine storm associated with coronavirus.
The receptor protein ACE2 and the TMPRSS2 protease that can activate SARS-CoV-2 entry are expressed in cells on the inner lining of the nose. Mucus producing goblet cells and ciliated cells in the nose have the highest levels of both proteins, making them the most likely initial infection route for coronavirus. Additional key entry points were found in the cells of the eye's cornea and the intestines. This suggests other points of infection could be via the tear ducts and through fecal-oral transmission.
The first round of antibody testing in L.A country reveals approximately 4.1% of the adult population has COVID-19 antibodies. Adjusting for margin of error, between 2.8% to 5.6% of the adult population has antibodies to the virus. This means between 221,000 and 442,000 adults in the Los Angeles area have been infected with coronavirus. The estimate is up to 55 times higher than confirmed cases reported for the area.
27 existing drugs which are currently not under evaluation for COVID-19 are effective at halting the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Four of the drugs, apilimod, MLN-3897, VBY-825, and ONO 5334, which have previously been tested for the treatment of a range of diseases from rheumatoid arthritis to cancer, appear to be the best candidates for coronavirus treatment.
Higher levels of plasmin, an enzyme involved in blood clotting prevention, enhances the virulence and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 by cleaving its spike proteins. Enhanced levels of plasmin are common in a range of diseases, including diabetes and heart disease. The findings shed light on why those with hypertension and diabetes are at increased risk of complications following coronavirus infection.
Researchers have designed antibody-like receptor proteins that can bind to cytokines, possibly reducing the effects of the COVID-19 associated cytokine storm.
Researchers have developed a novel antibody strategy to prevent the association between a harmless protein and a disease mediator that could lead to sepsis, and ultimately death. The findings could help to prevent sepsis induced by COVID-19 infections.
Study identifies 275 ways to help reduce the transmission of COVID-19 when countries eventually attempt to reduce social distancing pract
Regular exercise may help prevent or reduce the severity of ARDS for those with coronavirus. A single session of exercise increases the production of a critical antioxidant, called EcSOD, helping to reduce the effects of COVID-19 infection.
Coronaviruses rely on the TOP3B enzyme as a host factor, researchers report. Using artificial intelligence and molecular modeling, researchers were able to identify drug candidates that could serve as TOP3B inhibitors. Studies are now underway to test the drug candidates against living cell cultures and viruses, including COVID-19.
Remdesivir, a drug initially developed to fight Ebola and currently being fast-tracked into trials for COVID-19, is highly effective at stopping the replication mechanism of coronavirus. The drug tricks the virus by mimicking its building blocks, causing the inhibitor to get incorporated repeatedly, and preventing replication of SARS-CoV-2.
Study confirms sensory loss associated with taste and smell is strongly linked to early coronavirus infection. Based on the findings, people who report olfactory or taste loss are ten times more likely to have COVID-19 than other infections. Patients reported their sensory loss to be profound rather than mild. Encouragingly, the rate of sensory recovery was high, with patients reporting a return of normal smell and taste function within two to four weeks, which matches the time of disease recovery. Researchers also found people who reported sore throats more often tested negative for COVID-19.