Neural pathways for learning differ depending on how each person has learned a new skill.
Mice bred to be germ-free, and those treated with antibiotics showed a significant reduction in the ability to learn that a threatening danger was no longer present. Sequencing the RNA of microglia in the brains of the animals reveals altered gene expression in the immune cells, which play a role in remodeling how neurons connect during the learning process. Restoring the gut microbiota reverse the learning problems.
Researchers have identified a comprehensive circuit mechanism that governs how emotional states can influence movement through connections in the basal ganglia. The mechanism represents a way in which emotional states relate to changes in action control in depression, anxiety, and OCD.
Following a month of treatment with deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS), people with OCD reported a 45.2% reduction in symptom severity.
S1PR3, a receptor found on the surface of brain cells, may play a key role in stress resilience. Veterans with severe PTSD symptoms had lower levels of the S1PR3 protein in their blood than peers without the disorder.
A positive correlation has been identified between prosocial and rebellious behaviors in teens. The more risk taking behaviors a teen exhibited, the more likely they were to act prosocially. The findings suggest the same developmental processes are at work for both types of behaviors. Also noted was faster brain development in the medial prefrontal cortex predicted a decrease in rebellious behavior.
Study evaluates the effects of regular cannabis use on cortical dopamine function in youth at high risk of psychosis.
Neural patterns of activity in the medial prefrontal cortex associated with the intention to drink alcohol are influenced by the genetic risk for alcohol use disorder.
The medial prefrontal cortex persistently encodes value based decision variables.