A new model of vertical microbiome transmission between mother and child has been reported. Researchers say microbes in the maternal gut share genes with those in the infant's gut during the perinatal period directly following birth up to a few weeks postbirth.
Children who sleep less than 9 hours per night have significant differences in brain regions associated with memory, intelligence, and well-being compared to their peers who sleep 9 or more hours per night. Less sleep in children was also associated with increased risks of depression, anxiety, and impulsive behaviors.
A young child's counting skills are the single biggest predictor of their ability to participate in fair sharing behaviors. Prompting children to count improves their pro-social sharing behaviors, researchers say.