Early-life exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution alters the structure of the brain at age 12. Children exposed to air pollution had reduced cortical thickness and gray matter volume compared to children who were not exposed to high levels of pollution.
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Rat R222 was born with hydrocephalus. Neuroimaging revealed most of its brain had compressed and collapsed as it filled with fluid. However, despite its condition, the animal was still able to see, hear, smell, and feel like other animals. The study sheds new light on neuroplasticity, and the findings could have implications for the development of new machine learning technologies.
New findings dispute the popular cerebellar deficit hypothesis of dyslexia. Researchers report the cerebellum is not engaged during reading in typical readers and does not differ in children with dyslexia.
A new study challenges existing theories about spinal cord neurons. New findings suggest neurological signals originate from a major, scattered network of cells that send signals to only a few other neurons.
Acute inflammation of the anterior cerebellum resulted in depression-like symptoms in rodent models. Suppressing microglia helped reduce hyperexcitability and symptoms of depression.
While endocannabinoids have been reported to play a role in anti-inflammation in some areas of the brain, a new study reveals they may cause inflammation in the cerebellum.
Nineteen gene sets have been identified that contribute to at least five psychiatric disorders. The gene sets were associated with ADHD, ASD, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.