Frequent caffeine consumption reduces gray matter volume in areas of the right medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus. Ten days of "caffeine abstinence" helps regenerate gray matter.
Chiari 1 malformation, a common brain disorder, appears to be caused to two genetic mutations associated with brain development.
Neuroimaging study ties the degradation of circuitry in one area of the brain to reduced efficiency of executive function in older adults.
Structural and functional coupling in visual areas of the mouse brain can be detected at sub-cellular resolution in vitro.
Those with body dysmorphic disorder and anorexia have abnormalities in activity and connectivity in visual and parietal brain networks. People with anorexia and body dysmorphia process images with high, low, or normal levels of detail. The abnormalities for low level of detail have the most direct relationship with disorder symptom severity and body perception.
Comparing data from multiple neuroimaging studies, researchers found shared brain structural abnormalities between four psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They also identified brain signatures unique to each condition.
People with a life-long history of antisocial behavior had decreased mean surface area of the brain and lower mean cortical thickness than those with no history of antisocial behavior. Much of the cortical thinning was in areas associated with emotional regulation, motivation, and goal-directed behavior.
The left and right brain areas are more similar in those with ASD. Reduced asymmetry was identified in cortical thickness across various brain regions in those on the autism spectrum.
Researchers identified 48 common genetic variants that appear to play a role in the size of the brainstem and other subcortical structures. Forty of the variants were novel. The findings also revealed 199 genes related to the variants which regulate brain development and susceptibility to neurological disorders.
Telomere lengthening resulted in structural changes in the brain, including cortical thickening. By contrast, telomere shortening is associated with gray matter reduction, specifically in the precuneus.